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Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792355


Background: Due to findings on adverse reactions and clinical efficacy of different vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2, the administration of vaccination regimens containing both adenoviral vector vaccines and mRNA-based vaccines has become common. Data are still needed on the direct comparison of immunogenicity for these different regimens. Methods: We compared markers for immunogenicity (anti-S1 IgG/IgA, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell response) with three different vaccination regimens (homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n = 103), or mixture of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with mRNA-1273 (n = 116) or BNT162b2 (n = 105)) at two time points: the day of the second vaccination as a baseline and 14 days later. Results: All examined vaccination regimens elicited measurable immune responses that were significantly enhanced after the second dose. Homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was markedly inferior in immunogenicity to all other examined regimens after administration of the second dose. Between the heterologous regimens, mRNA-1273 as second dose induced greater antibody responses than BNT162b2, with no difference found for neutralizing antibodies and T-cell response. Discussion: While these findings allow no prediction about clinical protection, from an immunological point of view, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with an mRNA-based vaccine at one or both time points appears preferable to homologous vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Whether or not the demonstrated differences between the heterologous regimens are of clinical significance will be subject to further research.

Front Immunol ; 13: 811020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674341


BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and a second dose of an mRNA-based vaccine have been shown to be more immunogenic than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the current study, we examined the kinetics of the antibody response to the second dose of three different vaccination regimens (homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal manner; whether there are differences in latency or amplitude of the early response and which markers are most suitable to detect these responses. METHODS: We performed assays for anti-S1 IgG and IgA, anti-NCP IgG and a surrogate neutralization assay on serum samples collected from 57 participants on the day of the second vaccination as well as the following seven days. RESULTS: All examined vaccination regimens induced detectable antibody responses within the examined time frame. Both heterologous regimens induced responses earlier and with a higher amplitude than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Between the heterologous regimens, amplitudes were somewhat higher for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + mRNA-1273. There was no difference in latency between the IgG and IgA responses. Increases in the surrogate neutralization assay were the first changes to be detectable for all regimens and the only significant change seen for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. DISCUSSION: Both examined heterologous vaccination regimens are superior in immunogenicity, including the latency of the response, to homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. While the IgA response has a shorter latency than the IgG response after the first dose, no such difference was found after the second dose, implying that both responses are driven by separate plasma cell populations. Early and steep increases in surrogate neutralization levels suggest that this might be a more sensitive marker for antibody responses after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 than absolute levels of anti-S1 IgG.

/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , /immunology , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
HardwareX ; 11: e00261, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616684


In the face of a global pandemic, such as that caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the prevention of new infections is essential to stop the spread and ultimately return to normality. In addition to wearing masks and maintaining safe distances, regular ventilation in enclosed spaces where several people are gathered has proven to be an effective protective measure as advised by the World Health Organization. Additionally, as has been shown in a recent study of other airborne viruses, there is a strong correlation between the CO2level and aerosol content in a confined space under the assumption humans are the only CO2source. This can be exploited by means of a low-cost infrared CO2sensor to indirectly monitor the aerosol content and to provide targeted ventilation if predefined thresholds are exceeded. The distributed CO2monitoring network presented in this paper extends that idea and provides an inexpensive, comprehensive and modular monitoring network based on readily available components and 3D printing. By using a long-range communication link (LoRa) to centrally collect the real-time CO2concentration in a multitude of rooms, this network is particularly suitable for larger building complexes such as kindergartens, schools and universities without requiring partial or even full WLAN coverage.