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1.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 30(6): 393-399, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152252

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysphagia and dysphonia are common presentations of both acute and long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of peer-reviewed publications in 2020 and early 2021 were expert guidance and consensus statements to support dysphagia management in multidisciplinary teams while protecting clinicians and patients from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. This review discusses dysphagia and dysphonia primary data published in 2021-2022, focusing on patient presentations, pathophysiology, and evidence for interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinicians and researchers amassed knowledge of the cross-system presentation of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with COVID-19, from severe disease requiring ICU stays to those with mild-to-moderate disease presenting to outpatient clinics. Pre-COVID-19 health status, hospitalization experience, presence of neurological symptoms, and impact of the virus to the upper aerodigestive and respiratory system need consideration in patient management. Long-term dysphagia and dysphonia manifested from COVID-19 require otolaryngologist and speech-language pathologist input. SUMMARY: Changes in immunity through population vaccination and variations in COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 mutations means prevalence data are challenging to interpret. However, there is no doubt of the presence of long-term dysphagia and dysphonia in our clinics. Long-term dysphagia and dysphonia are complex and a multidisciplinary team with a tailored approach for each patient is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Dysphonia/etiology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
2.
Dysphagia ; 37(6): 1349-1374, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606589

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an impact globally with millions infected, high mortality, significant economic ramifications, travel restrictions, national lockdowns, overloaded healthcare systems, effects on healthcare workers' health and well-being, and large amounts of funding diverted into rapid vaccine development and implementation. Patients with COVID-19, especially those who become severely ill, have frequently developed dysphagia and dysphonia. Health professionals working in the field have needed to learn about this new disease while managing these patients with enhanced personal protective equipment. Emerging research suggests differences in the clinical symptoms and journey to recovery for patients with COVID-19 in comparison to other intensive care populations. New insights from outpatient clinics also suggest distinct presentations of dysphagia and dysphonia in people after COVID-19 who were not hospitalized or severely ill. This international expert panel provides commentary on the impact of the pandemic on speech pathologists and our current understanding of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with COVID-19, from acute illness to long-term recovery. This narrative review provides a unique, comprehensive critical appraisal of published peer-reviewed primary data as well as emerging previously unpublished, original primary data from across the globe, including clinical symptoms, trajectory, and prognosis. We conclude with our international expert opinion on what we have learnt and where we need to go next as this pandemic continues across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Communicable Disease Control
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1328-1341, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537208

ABSTRACT

As of July 31, 2021, SARS-CoV-2 had infected almost 200 million people worldwide. The growing burden of survivorship is substantial in terms of the complexity of long-term health effects and the number of people affected. Persistent symptoms have been reported in patients with both mild and severe acute COVID-19, including those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Early reports on the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) indicate that fatigue, dyspnoea, cough, headache, loss of taste or smell, and cognitive or mental health impairments are among the most common symptoms. These complex, multifactorial impairments across the domains of physical, cognitive, and mental health require a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to management. Decades of research on the multifaceted needs of and models of care for patients with post-intensive care syndrome provide a framework for the development of PASC clinics to address the immediate needs of both hospitalised and non-hospitalised survivors of COVID-19. Such clinics could also provide a platform for rigorous research into the natural history of PASC and the potential benefits of therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Fatigue , Humans , Survivors
4.
PM R ; 14(2): 217-226, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442034

ABSTRACT

Neurologic manifestations associated with a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis are common and often occur in severe and critically ill patients. In these patients, the neurologic symptoms are confounded by critical care conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients with dual diagnoses of COVID-19 and neurologic changes such as myopathy, polyneuropathy, and stroke are likely at a higher risk of experiencing deficits with swallowing, communication, and/or cognition. Speech-language pathologists are an integral part of both the critical care and neurologic disorders multi-disciplinary teams, offering valuable contributions in the evaluation, treatment, and management of these areas. Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) who require mechanical ventilation often experience difficulty with communication and benefit from early speech-language pathology intervention to identify the most efficient communication methods with the medical team and caregivers. Moreover, patients with neurologic manifestations may present with cognitive-linguistic impairments such as aphasia, thereby increasing the need for communication-based interventions. Difficulties with voice and swallowing after extubation are common, often requiring frequent treatment sessions, possibly persisting beyond ICU discharge. After leaving the ICU, patients with COVID-19 often experience physical, cognitive, and mental health impairments collectively called post-intensive care syndrome. This is often a lengthy road as they progress toward full recovery, requiring continued speech-language pathology treatment after hospital discharge, capitalizing on the principles of neuroplasticity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurological Rehabilitation , Speech-Language Pathology , Critical Care , Humans , Neuronal Plasticity , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064785

ABSTRACT

Mortality from COVID-19 has obscured a subtler crisis - the swelling ranks of COVID-19 survivors. After critical illness, patients often suffer post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses physical, cognitive, and/or mental health impairments that are often long-lasting barriers to resuming a meaningful life. Some deficits after COVID-19 critical illness will require otolaryngologic expertise for years after hospital discharge. There are roles for all subspecialties in preventing, diagnosing, or treating sequelae of COVID-19. Otolaryngologist leadership in multidisciplinary efforts ensures coordinated care. Timely tracheostomy, when indicated, may shorten the course of intensive care unit stay and thereby potentially reduce the impairments associated with PICS. Otolaryngologists can provide expertise in olfactory disorders; thrombotic sequelae of hearing loss and vertigo; and laryngotracheal injuries that impair speech, voice, swallowing, communication, and breathing. In the aftermath of severe COVID-19, otolaryngologists are poised to lead efforts in early identification and intervention for impairments affecting patients' quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Otolaryngologists , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Quality of Life , Survivorship , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(6): 1134-1135, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917863

ABSTRACT

Persistent smell and taste disorders have been reported as some of the most common symptoms after COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Sensory, olfactory, and gustatory functions perform an important role in the initiation and modulation of oropharyngeal swallow biomechanics and salivation as well as in mealtime enjoyment and appetite. Yet, the details of this interaction remain relatively unknown in patients who are infected with and recovering from COVID-19. In this commentary, we discuss the possible impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the central and peripheral nervous system and consider the pathophysiology of olfactory, gustatory, and pharyngolaryngeal sensory deficits and its influence on deglutition, describing hypotheses and offering guidance for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Deglutition , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders
9.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(5): 835-842, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify core practices for workforce management of communication and swallowing functions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive patients within the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: A modified Delphi methodology was used, with 3 electronic voting rounds. AGREE II and an adapted COVID-19 survey framework from physiotherapy were used to develop survey statements. Sixty-six statements pertaining to workforce planning and management of communication and swallowing function in the ICU were included. SETTING: Electronic modified Delphi process. PARTICIPANTS: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) (N=35) from 6 continents representing 12 countries. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was consensus agreement, defined a priori as ≥70% of participants with a mean Likert score ≥7.0 (11-point scale: 0=strongly disagree, 10=strongly agree). Prioritization rank order of statements in a fourth round was also conducted. RESULTS: SLPs with a median of 15 years of ICU experience, working primarily in clinical (54%), academic (29%), or managerial positions (17%), completed all voting rounds. After the third round, 64 statements (97%) met criteria. Rank ordering identified issues of high importance. CONCLUSIONS: A set of global consensus statements to facilitate planning and delivery of rehabilitative care for patients admitted to the ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic were agreed by an international expert SLP group. Statements focused on considerations for workforce preparation, resourcing and training, and the management of communication and swallowing functions. These statements support and provide direction for all members of the rehabilitation team to use for patients admitted to the ICU during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Communication Disorders/rehabilitation , Critical Care/standards , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Modalities/standards , Speech Therapy/standards , COVID-19/complications , Communication Disorders/etiology , Consensus , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Delphi Technique , Humans , Intensive Care Units/standards , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech Therapy/methods , Speech-Language Pathology/standards
10.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(12): 2233-2242, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878828

ABSTRACT

Recognizing a need for more guidance on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, members of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Editorial Board invited several clinicians with early experience managing the disease to collaborate on a document to help guide rehabilitation clinicians in the community. This consensus document is written in a "question and answer" format and contains information on the following items: common manifestations of the disease; rehabilitation recommendations in the acute hospital setting, recommendations for inpatient rehabilitation and special considerations. These suggestions are intended for use by rehabilitation clinicians in the inpatient setting caring for patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. The text represents the authors' best judgment at the time it was written. However, our knowledge of COVID-19 is growing rapidly. The reader should take advantage of the most up-to-date information when making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/physiopathology , Communication , Cooperative Behavior , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Inpatients , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/standards
11.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 29(4): 2242-2253, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786682

ABSTRACT

Purpose Speech-language pathologists are playing a crucial role in the assessment and management of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Our goal was to synthesize peer-reviewed literature and association guidelines from around the world regarding dysphagia assessment and management for this specific population. Method A review of publications available in the PubMed database and official guidelines of international groups was performed on May 23, 2020. The information was synthesized and categorized into three content areas for swallowing: clinical evaluation, instrumental assessment, and rehabilitation. Results Five publications were identified in the PubMed database. Following title, abstract, and full-text review, only three publications met inclusion criteria: two reviews and one narrative report. Additionally, 19 international guidelines were reviewed. To assess swallowing, a modified clinical evaluation was recommended and only following a risk assessment. Instrumental assessments were often considered aerosol generating, especially transnasal procedures such as endoscopy and manometry. For this reason, many associations recommended that these examinations be performed only when essential and with appropriate personal protective equipment. Guidelines recommended that intervention should focus on compensatory strategies, including bolus modification, maneuvers/postural changes, and therapeutic exercises that can be conducted with physical distancing. Respiratory training devices were not recommended during rehabilitation. Conclusions International associations have provided extensive guidance regarding the level of risk related to the management of dysphagia in this population. To date, there are no scientific papers offering disease and/or recovery profiling for patients with dysphagia and coronavirus disease 2019. As a result, research in this area is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech-Language Pathology
12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(5): 984-1000, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the chronic phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, questions have arisen regarding the care of patients with a tracheostomy and downstream management. This review addresses gaps in the literature regarding posttracheostomy care, emphasizing safety of multidisciplinary teams, coordinating complex care needs, and identifying and managing late complications of prolonged intubation and tracheostomy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Google Scholar, institutional guidance documents. REVIEW METHODS: Literature through June 2020 on the care of patients with a tracheostomy was reviewed, including consensus statements, clinical practice guidelines, institutional guidance, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 virology and immunology. Where data were lacking, expert opinions were aggregated and adjudicated to arrive at consensus recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Best practices in caring for patients after a tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic are multifaceted, encompassing precautions during aerosol-generating procedures; minimizing exposure risks to health care workers, caregivers, and patients; ensuring safe, timely tracheostomy care; and identifying and managing laryngotracheal injury, such as vocal fold injury, posterior glottic stenosis, and subglottic stenosis that may affect speech, swallowing, and airway protection. We present recommended approaches to tracheostomy care, outlining modifications to conventional algorithms, raising vigilance for heightened risks of bleeding or other complications, and offering recommendations for personal protective equipment, equipment, care protocols, and personnel. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Treatment of patients with a tracheostomy in the COVID-19 pandemic requires foresight and may rival procedural considerations in tracheostomy in their complexity. By considering patient-specific factors, mitigating transmission risks, optimizing the clinical environment, and detecting late manifestations of severe COVID-19, clinicians can ensure due vigilance and quality care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Postoperative Care , Tracheostomy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Crit Care ; 29(6): e116-e127, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critical care nurses caring for patients with a tracheostomy are at high risk because of the predilection of SARS-CoV-2 for respiratory and mucosal surfaces. This review identifies patient-centered practices that ensure safety and reduce risk of infection transmission to health care workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Consensus statements, guidelines, institutional recommendations, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and previous outbreaks were reviewed. A global interdisciplinary team analyzed and prioritized findings via electronic communications and video conferences to develop consensus recommendations. RESULTS: Aerosol-generating procedures are commonly performed by nurses and other health care workers, most notably during suctioning, tracheostomy tube changes, and stoma care. Patient repositioning, readjusting circuits, administering nebulized medications, and patient transport also present risks. Standard personal protective equipment includes an N95/FFP3 mask with or without surgical masks, gloves, goggles, and gown when performing aerosol-generating procedures for patients with known or suspected COVID-19. Viral testing of bronchial aspirate via tracheostomy may inform care providers when determining the protective equipment required. The need for protocols to reduce risk of transmission of infection to nurses and other health care workers is evident. CONCLUSION: Critical care nurses and multidisciplinary teams often care for patients with a tracheostomy who are known or suspected to have COVID-19. Appropriate care of these patients relies on safeguarding the health care team. The practices described in this review may greatly reduce risk of infectious transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Occupational Health , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tracheostomy , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Critical Care Nursing/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Dysphagia ; 36(2): 170-182, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639039

ABSTRACT

At the time of writing this paper, there are over 11 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide. Health professionals involved in dysphagia care are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in their day-to-day practices. Otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, rehabilitation specialists, and speech-language pathologists are subject to virus exposure due to their proximity to the aerodigestive tract and reliance on aerosol-generating procedures in swallow assessments and interventions. Across the globe, professional societies and specialty associations are issuing recommendations about which procedures to use, when to use them, and how to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission during their use. Balancing safety for self, patients, and the public while maintaining adequate evidence-based dysphagia practices has become a significant challenge. This paper provides current evidence on COVID-19 transmission during commonly used dysphagia practices and provides recommendations for protection while conducting these procedures. The paper summarizes current understanding of dysphagia in patients with COVID-19 and draws on evidence for dysphagia interventions that can be provided without in-person consults and close proximity procedures including dysphagia screening and telehealth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
16.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 29(3): 1320-1334, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594936

ABSTRACT

Purpose As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded, there has been growing recognition of risks to frontline health care workers. When caring for patients with tracheostomy, speech-language pathologists have significant exposure to mucosal surfaces, secretions, and aerosols that may harbor the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This tutorial provides guidance on practices for safely performing patient evaluation and procedures, thereby reducing risk of infection. Method Data were collated through review of literature, guidelines, and consensus statements relating to COVID-19 and similar high-consequent infections, with a focus on mitigating risk of transmission to health care workers. Particular emphasis was placed on speech-language pathologists, nurses, and other allied health professionals. A multinational interdisciplinary team then analyzed findings, arriving at recommendations through consensus via electronic communications and video conference. Results Reports of transmission of infection to health care workers in the current COVID-19 pandemic and previous outbreaks substantiate the need for safe practices. Many procedures routinely performed by speech-language pathologists have a significant risk of infection due to aerosol generation. COVID-19 testing can inform level of protective equipment, and meticulous hygiene can stem spread of nosocomial infection. Modifications to standard clinical practice in tracheostomy are often required. Personal protective equipment, including either powered air-purifying respirator or N95 mask, gloves, goggles, and gown, are needed when performing aerosol-generating procedures in patients with known or suspected COVID-19 infection. Conclusions Speech-language pathologists are often called on to assist in the care of patients with tracheostomy and known or suspected COVID-19 infection. Appropriate care of these patients is predicated on maintaining the health and safety of the health care team. Careful adherence to best practices can significantly reduce risk of infectious transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Speech-Language Pathology/standards , Tracheostomy/standards , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Dysphagia ; 36(2): 161-169, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591922

ABSTRACT

Growing numbers of SARS-CoV-2 cases coupled with limited understanding of transmissibility and virulence, have challenged the current workflow and clinical care pathways for the dysphagia provider. At the same time, the need for non-COVID-19-related dysphagia care persists. Increased awareness of asymptomatic virus carriers and variable expression of the disease have also focused attention to appropriate patient care in the context of protection for the healthcare workforce. The objective of this review was to create a clinical algorithm and reference for dysphagia clinicians across clinical settings to minimize spread of COVID-19 cases while providing optimal care to patients suffering from swallowing disorders. Every practitioner and healthcare system will likely have different constraints or preferences leading to the utilization of one technique over another. Knowledge about this pandemic increases every day, but the algorithms provided here will help in considering the best options for proceeding with safe and effective dysphagia care in this new era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
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