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Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(5): 601-613, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784782


OBJECTIVE: Autoinflammatory type I interferonopathies, chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature/proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (CANDLE/PRAAS), stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) are rare and clinically complex immunodysregulatory diseases. With emerging knowledge of genetic causes and targeted treatments, a Task Force was charged with the development of 'points to consider' to improve diagnosis, treatment and long-term monitoring of patients with these rare diseases. METHODS: Members of a Task Force consisting of rheumatologists, neurologists, an immunologist, geneticists, patient advocates and an allied healthcare professional formulated research questions for a systematic literature review. Then, based on literature, Delphi questionnaires and consensus methodology, 'points to consider' to guide patient management were developed. RESULTS: The Task Force devised consensus and evidence-based guidance of 4 overarching principles and 17 points to consider regarding the diagnosis, treatment and long-term monitoring of patients with the autoinflammatory interferonopathies, CANDLE/PRAAS, SAVI and AGS. CONCLUSION: These points to consider represent state-of-the-art knowledge to guide diagnostic evaluation, treatment and management of patients with CANDLE/PRAAS, SAVI and AGS and aim to standardise and improve care, quality of life and disease outcomes.

Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System , Nervous System Malformations , Rheumatology , Skin Diseases , Erythema Nodosum , Fingers/abnormalities , Humans , Quality of Life
Cardiol Young ; : 1-7, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565679


INTRODUCTION: We describe a cohort of children referred with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and compare this cohort with a 2019 cohort of children with Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2019 and 2020 referrals to the inflammatory cardiology service at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. We compared cardiac and inflammatory parameters of a sub-section of the 2020 cohort who presented with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with the remainder of the cohort. RESULTS: Referrals significantly increased between February and June 2020 compared to 2019 (19.8/30 days versus 3.9/30 days). Frequency of coronary artery aneurysms (11/79 (13.9%) versus 7/47 (14.9%)) or severe coronary artery aneurysms (6/79 (7.6%) versus 3/47 (6.4%)) was similar between 2020 and 2019, respectively. The 2020 cohort was older (median age 9.07 years versus 2.38 years), more likely to be of Black, Asian, or other minority ethnic group (60/76 (78.9%) versus 25/42 (59.5%)), and more likely to require inotropic support (22 (27.5%) versus 0 (0%)). Even children with significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction demonstrated complete recovery of cardiac function within 10 days (mean 5.25 days ± 2.7). DISCUSSION: We observed complete recovery of myocardial dysfunction and an overall low rate of permanent coronary sequelae, indicating that the majority of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children are unlikely to encounter long-term cardiac morbidity. Although the frequency of myocardial dysfunction and inotropic support requirement is not consistent with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, the frequency of coronary artery abnormalities and severe coronary artery abnormalities suggests a degree of phenotypic overlap.

Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(2): 911-917, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944404


OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (i) to describe the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally related to Sars-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in children; (ii) to propose a framework to guide multidisciplinary team (MDT) management; and (iii) to highlight the role of the paediatric rheumatologist in this context. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective case notes review of patients referred to a single specialist paediatric centre with suspected PIMS-TS, with a focus on clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcome in the context of an MDT framework. RESULTS: Nineteen children of median age 9.1 years fulfilled the definition of PIMS-TS and were managed within an MDT framework: 5/19 were female; 14/19 were of Black, Asian or minority ethnicity; 9/19 also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD). Severe systemic inflammation, shock, and abdominal pain were ubiquitous. Treatment was stratified within an MDT framework and included CSs in all; i.v. immunoglobulin in all; anakinra in 4/19; infliximab in 1/19; and antiviral (aciclovir) in 4/19. CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant diagnostic equipoise using a current definition of PIMS-TS, overlapping with KD. Outside of clinical trials, an MDT approach is vital. The role of the paediatric rheumatologist is to consider differential diagnoses of hyperinflammation in the young, to advise on empiric immunomodulatory therapy, to set realistic therapeutic targets, to gauge therapeutic success, to oversee timely step-down of immunomodulation, and to contribute to the longer-term MDT follow-up of any late inflammatory sequelae.

Abdominal Pain/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , Patient Care Team , Physician's Role , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , United Kingdom