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1.
Br J Sports Med ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137579

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in mental health, quality of life (QOL) and physical activity (PA) among adolescent athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic as organised sports resumed. METHODS: Adolescent athletes completed surveys including demographic and sport participation information, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and the Hospital for Special Surgery Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale in May 2020 following COVID-19-related sport cancellations (Spring20) and after returning to sports in May 2021 (Spring21). The groups were balanced by inverse propensity score weighting and compared using analysis of variance models and ordinal regression models. RESULTS: 17 421 participants were included (Spring20=13 002; Spring21=4419; 16.2±1.2 years; 53% female). Anxiety was significantly lower (better) in Spring21 (Spring20=7.0, 95% CI 6.9 to 7.1; Spring21=4.9, 95% CI 4.8 to 5.0, p<0.001), as was the prevalence of moderate to severe anxiety (Spring20=29.4%, Spring21=17.1%, p<0.001). Depression was significantly improved in Spring21 (Spring20=7.6, 95% CI 7.5 to 7.7; Spring21=4.6, 95% CI 4.5 to 4.8, p<0.001), as was the prevalence of moderate to severe depression (Spring20=32.2%, Spring21=15.4%, p<0.001). Athletes in Spring21 reported higher QOL (Spring20=79.6, 95% CI 79.3 to 79.9; Spring21=84.7, 95% CI 84.4 to 85.0, p<0.001) and increased levels of PA (Spring20=13.8, 95% CI 13.6 to 13.9; Spring21=22.7, 95% CI 22.6 to 22.9, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Early COVID-19 sports restrictions were associated with worsening mental health in adolescents. In 2021, after returning to sports, athletes reported significant improvements in mental health, QOL and PA, although mental health adversities remain an important priority.

2.
Trends in Psychology ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2129622

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in faculty who taught using video conferencing software, such as Zoom, across different modalities in higher education. Drawing from social comparison theory, this study examines upward and downward social comparison as parallel mediators of the interrelationships between faculty burnout, teaching anxiety, and teaching satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic using a cross-sectional sample of 219 faculty. Findings reveal the mediating effect of upward social comparison on the relationship between faculty’s burnout and teaching anxiety. Additionally, upward social comparison had a mediating effect on faculty’s burnout and teaching satisfaction. Implications for teaching and learning using video conferencing tools are also offered. © 2022, Associação Brasileira de Psicologia.

3.
International Journal of Stroke ; 17(2 Supplement):8-9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2079342

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted modern healthcare and delayed time to acute stroke treatment at some centres internationally. The effect of the pandemic on time metrics in patients with a large vessel occlusion (LVO) at Australian stroke centres is unknown. Aim(s): To evaluate time metrics for patients with an LVO transferred from a primary stroke centre (PSC) to a comprehensive stroke centre (CSC), during and before the coronavirus pandemic. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with an LVO who were transferred from a single PSC to any of three CSCs were enrolled. The pandemic period was defined as the 24 months following the March 2020 state of emergency declaration in Melbourne, and prepandemic period the preceding 24 months. "Door-in" was the time triaged as a stroke, and "Door-out" was the time ambulance staff departed. Result(s): 159 patients were included, 82 in the pandemic group and 77 in the pre-pandemic group. There were no significant differences between groups in patient age, sex, modified Rankin scale score, or National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score. Door-in to Door-out (DIDO) times were reduced during the pandemic (median 52 vs 66 minutes, IQR 41-66 vs 52-95 minutes, p<0.001). There was no change in time from PSC Door-in to the first CSC DSA images (median 125 vs 125 minutes, p=0.79). Within the DIDO workflow, the only significantly different metric was time from CSC advising of patient acceptance to PSC door-out, which improved (median 8 vs 14 minutes, p=0.016). DIDO times out of hours when the stroke registrar was called in also improved (median 51 vs 87 minutes, p=0.003). Conclusion(s): The median DIDO times at our PSC improved during the pandemic. Further studies are required to determine if this is due to a continued quality improvement program at our centre, or due to other factors.

4.
Sonography ; 9:16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030995

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this research project we aim to assess the feasibility and practicability of using a robot to perform ultrasound. Especially during the current COVID-19 pandemic, robotic ultrasound when developed successfully can help us to perform ultrasound imaging of infectious patients while minimising the risk to our sonographers. Furthermore, robotic ultrasound system can reduce the musculoskeletal burden of sonographers while potentially obtaining better more even ultrasound pictures. Method: We are recruiting 60 patients to perform focused scans of the abdomen. This includes: liver, kidneys, ascites, gallbladder. Our study robot is uniquely a haptically enhanced robot, meaning it provides the sonographer (person who performs ultrasound) with force feedbacks throughout the scan making it easier to operate and safer. The research study will be conducted over a period of 3 months starting in February 2022. Results will be included at the time of presentation as we have only started the study. Conclusion: An innovative research project in which we reduce sonographer/ patient interaction in the cases of infections such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 61(SUPPL 1):i64-i65, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868394

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims The COVID-19 pandemic led to an overnight shift in healthcare delivery and rapid uptake of digital technology. Such approaches risk digital exclusion for people without access to or not confident in their use of technology. We sought to examine digital access and e-health literacy in people with inflammatory conditions. Methods People (n=2,024) were identified from their electronic health record and invited to participate in a survey, using SMS and postal approaches. Data were collected on age, gender, self-reported arthritis diagnosis (RA, PsA, AS, SLE and other), access to an internet-enabled device and frequency of internet access, health literacy (single-item literacy screener) and self-perceived e-health literacy (eHEALs). Ethical approval was obtained (Ref 21/PR/0867). Results 639 people completed the survey, of whom 287 (44.9%) completed it online. Mean (sd) age was 64.5 (13.1) years and 384 (64.7%) were female. 98.3% were white. Approximately 20% of people did not have access to an internet enabled device (Table). 93 (15.3%) of patients reported never accessing the internet, this proportion was higher in people with RA. Approximately 19% had low health literacy. In those reporting internet use, eHealth literacy was moderate. The most Conclusion Low health literacy, lack of digital access and low reported internet use was common, especially in people with RA, leading to high use of telephone advice and rheumatology appointments. Digital roll-out needs to take account of people requiring extra support to enable them to access care or risks excluding many patients with inflammatory conditions.

7.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 61(SUPPL 1):i51-i52, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868375

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims Concerns about the risk of COVID-19 infection led to guidelines advocating shielding for many people with inflammatory conditions. We aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on the self-reported physical and mental health of people with inflammatory conditions. Methods 2024 patients with inflammatory conditions (RA, PsA, AS, SLE and other) were randomly selected from electronic health records. Survey invites were sent (August 2021 to coincide with relaxation of COVID restrictions) using a combination of SMS and postal approaches. Data collected included demographics, COVID infection and shielding status, physical (MSK-HQ) and mental health (PHQ8 and GAD7) and global impact on physical or mental health (4 options: none-severe). Ethical approval was obtained (REC Ref 21/PR/0867). Results 639 people completed the survey, of whom 287 (44.9%) completed online. Mean (sd) age was 64.5 (13.1) years and 384 (64.7%) were female. The majority of people had RA although 57 (9%) reported more than one inflammatory condition. 349 (57.9%) of people were advised to shield. Rates of COVID infection were relatively low across the groups (Table 1). 254 (41.2%) reported moderate or severe impact of the pandemic on physical health, which impacted least in people with RA. 244 (39.4%) reported moderate or severe impact of the pandemic on mental health with 175 (28.7%) reporting moderate depression (PHQ8>10) and 138 (22.6%) moderate anxiety (GAD-7≥10). Conclusion Reported COVID infections were low in our cohort. The pandemic had significant effects on physical and mental health, which appeared less in people with RA than other inflammatory conditions.

8.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 61(SUPPL 1):i49-i50, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868371

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims The COVID-19 pandemic placed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at increased risk of poor outcomes as a result of their condition, compounded by use of immunosuppressant medication, and higher prevalence of comorbidities. As a consequence, some patients were instructed within the UK to follow strict guidelines to 'shield', severely restricting routine social interactions. This study explored patients' longitudinal experiences of living with RA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, from a community hospital-based rheumatology service, participated in two semi-structured telephone interviews at baseline in autumn 2020 and 2-4 months later. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was undertaken by two members of the research team with input from two patient partners (KR and MB). Results 15 participants (9 females, 10 retired, age range 45-79 years) were interviewed twice. Five themes were identified: i) fear, ii) social wellbeing, iii) physical health, iv) pre-existing self-management of RA as a coping mechanism, and v) vulnerability. The overriding emotion was one of fear of contracting COVID-19, which remained high throughout both interviews. Fear was influenced by patients' existing knowledge of their RA and medications and the presence of other significant co-morbidities. Further influences on fear included mainstream media reports (increasing reporting of deaths and new variants) and personal knowledge (family and friends who had contracted COVID-19). The impact on social wellbeing became more pronounced as remote communications could not replicate the benefits of physical interaction. Participants reported no impact on their physical health, with increased rest resulting from restricted social interaction perceived to be beneficial. Many participants utilised the resilience they had learned as a result of having RA to cope, including stress management, pacing, and exercise. Being categorised as 'clinically extremely vulnerable' led to a reassessment of self-identity, with participants not wanting to be perceived as being weak or helpless. Finally, many participants used lockdown to reflect on and reassess their personal priorities. Conclusion This longitudinal interview study with 15 people with RA highlights that the main impact of the pandemic appeared to be on emotional wellbeing brought about by fear of COVID-19, later compounded by lack of social interaction. In this small study, participants' physical health was reported to be stable and participants were able to use self-management skills to cope. The realisation of the seriousness of contracting COVID-19 led to feelings of vulnerability and a reassessment of self-identity. The study raises important issues for those providing healthcare to people with RA, including effective communication with awareness of its likely impact, using pre-existing selfmanagement strategies to enhance wellbeing, and recognition of the potential for social isolation and the implications thereof.

9.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):1044, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770409

ABSTRACT

Introduction It is well established that von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels increase with age among healthy adults. Recently, there is emerging research demonstrating this may also occur in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD), particularly type 1 VWD, and may be related to comorbidities. Despite increasing VWF levels, it remains unclear as to whether or not this alters bleeding phenotype. It is also unclear why this occurs most commonly in patients with type 1 VWD, but VWF mutation status may play a role. Older patients commonly undergo invasive procedures, and all VWD patients require periprocedural VWD-specific therapy to ensure appropriate hemostasis. If older type 1 VWD patients have experienced normalization of VWF levels, and no longer have an increased risk of bleeding, VWD-specific therapy may increase thrombosis risk, especially among patients with underlying cardiovascular disease or related risk factors, subject the patient to other adverse reactions such as hyponatremia, and is unnecessarily costly. For these reasons, investigation into the effect of age on VWF levels and bleeding risk in type 1 VWD patients is sorely needed. Methods This is an NHLBI-funded K23 multicenter, cross-sectional study to determine the effect of age on VWF levels and bleeding risk in patients with type 1 VWD, and to determine if pathogenic VWF mutations alter this effect.Individuals with a new or historical diagnosis of type 1 VWD (defined as clinical symptoms consistent with VWD and VWF antigen level or ristocetin cofactor activity <0.50 IU/mL) and age 18 or older are enrolled during routine clinic visits at participating Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTCs). Following enrollment, pertinent medical history is obtained;the condensed MCMDM-1 VWD Bleeding Assessment Tool is administered, with bleeding history based on bleeding symptoms during the past 5 years;and blood samples are collected for the following: VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) level, VWF ristocetin cofactor activity, factor VIII activity, blood type, and VWF gene sequencing. We hypothesize age is associated with increased VWF:Ag levels and lower condensed MCMDM-1 VWD bleeding scores in patients with type 1 VWD, and this association is weaker among those with a pathogenic VWF mutation. In addition, we hypothesize multimorbidity partially explains the association between age and VWF:Ag levels, and VWF:Ag levels partially explain the association between age and condensed MCMDM-1 VWD bleeding scores in patients with type 1 VWD. A sample size of 250 participants provides 90% power to detect an effect size of Beta=±0.032 points per year of age, which is much smaller than the observed effect size, Beta=-0.080, from preliminary data. The primary analyses will be based on multivariable linear regression models with adjustment for blood type O, exogenous estrogen therapy, multimorbidity (defined as 2 or more of the core set of 20 chronic conditions, i.e., cancer, hypertension, stroke, etc., as selected by the United States Department of Health and Human Services), and medications (aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and anticoagulants). In the regression models, two-sided t-tests will be used with an alpha=0.05. Results This multicenter, cross-sectional study consists of seven HTCs: Hemophilia Center of Western Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania, Mary M. Gooley Hemophilia Center, Ohio State University, Bleeding & Clotting Disorders Institute, Mayo Clinic, and University of California, San Diego. During the first year of the study, site initiation visits were conducted, regulatory approval obtained, and contracts executed. Delays in these activities occurred in large part due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As the first year of the study concludes, all sites are now active and enrolling participants. Thus far, 43 participants have been enrolled (Table 1). No barriers to enrollment have been encountered and very few patients have declined study participation. Discussion In conclusion, this ongoing multicenter, cross-section study seeks to determine the effect ge has on VWF levels and bleeding risk in patients with type 1 VWD while exploring the role of VWF mutations and multimorbidity in this process. The results will be used to justify a longitudinal study, which is the ideal approach to research the effects of aging in this population.

10.
Heart Lung and Circulation ; 30:S208, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734421

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A paucity in data exists regarding the expected growth rate of myxomas given the prompt transition to surgical intervention on initial discovery. Most case reports describe an initial normal echocardiogram compared with a subsequent echocardiogram revealing a myxoma at the time of diagnosis [1-3]. Uniquely, our case follows the sequential monitored growth of an atrial myxoma with transoesophageal images over a 19-month period. Case: This case describes a 71-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia admitted with a provoked deep vein thrombosis. This was complicated by bilateral pulmonary emboli and a presumed paradoxical embolus through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) resulting in a middle cerebral artery stroke. She was thrombolysed, then managed with rivaroxaban. During PFO closure, intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) revealed a new left-sided atrial mass 1.0cm x 0.6cm in size, resulting in procedure abandonment. Uncertainty around diagnosis in addition to delays related to the COVID-19 pandemic led to serial imaging. The mass was monitored via TOE at 5, 11 and 19 months, revealing an initially stable then unexpected rapid progression to a size of 3.6cm x 2.9cm in the final 8 months. The patient had prompt excision of her myxoma and patch closure of interatrial septum. Discussion: This case exhibits a rare opportunity to appreciate the visual progression of an atrial myxoma and the unpredictable rapid growth over an 8-month period, highlighting the importance of interval monitoring of undifferentiated atrial lesions. [Formula presented]

11.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i368-i369, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722329

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose complex problems across Europe and the world, with rising numbers of infections and the ongoing need for drastic public health interventions. This is difficult for patients with immune-mediated disorders like Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), where immunosuppressive medications may affect susceptibility to serious infection. It was particularly challenging for physicians and patients during the first wave of the pandemic, when it was unclear whether anti-inflammatory flare treatment should be adapted to reduce infection risk, whilst trying to ensure symptomatic control and avoid admission to overwhelmed hospitals. Despite the development of various IBD / COVID-19 databases, the treatment adaptations and outcomes of patients experiencing IBD flares during the COVID-19 pandemic remain undefined. We aimed to compare IBD management and outcomes between pandemic and prepandemic cohorts. Methods: An observational cohort study was performed, comprising patients who contacted IBD teams for a symptom flare between March - June, 2020 in, 60 National Health Service trusts in the United Kingdom. Data were compared to a pre-pandemic cohort after propensity- matching for age and disease severity. Statistical analyses were performed using R (version, 4.1.0, Vienna, Austria). Results: In total, 3728 patients in the pandemic (n=1864) and pre-pandemic (n=1864) cohorts were included. The principal findings were reduced systemic corticosteroid prescription during the pandemic in both Crohn's disease (prednisolone: pandemic, 199/752, 26.5% vs, 263/708, 37.1%;p<0.001) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (prednisolone: pandemic, 372/1112, 33.5% vs, 470/1156, 40.7%, p<0.001), with increases in poorly bioavailable oral corticosteroids in Crohn's (pandemic, 117/752, 15.6% vs, 48/708, 6.8%;p<0.001) and UC (pandemic, 131/1112, 11.8% vs, 60/1156, 5.2%;p<0.001). Ustekinumab (Crohn's and UC) and vedolizumab (UC) treatment also significantly increased during the pandemic. Three-month steroid-free remission was similar in both Crohn's (pandemic, 175/616, 28.4% vs, 195/608, 32.1%;p=0.17) and UC (pandemic, 312/858, 36.4% vs, 404/1006, 40.2%;p=0.095). The, 65 patients experiencing a flare and COVID-19 were more likely to have moderate-to-severely active disease at three months compared to those with a flare alone. Conclusion: Despite several treatment adaptations during the pandemic, steroid-free outcomes were comparable to pre-pandemic levels, though patients with a flare and COVID-19 experienced worse outcomes. These findings have implications for IBD management during future waves or pandemics.

12.
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine ; 9(7_suppl3), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1685811

ABSTRACT

Background: In March 2020, schools were closed to in-person teaching and interscholastic sports cancelled in an attempt to slow the spread of the COVID-19. Child health experts have stated that school closures may have profound psychosocial consequences for students and need further study. Hypothesis/Purpose: To identify how COVID-19 related school closures and sport cancellations impacted the health of adolescent athletes. Methods: Adolescent athletes in Wisconsin were recruited via social media to complete an online survey in May 2020 while schools were closed to in-person teaching and interscholastic and club sports were cancelled. Assessments included the: General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7) for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item (PHQ-9) for depression, the Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (PFABS) for physical activity, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) for quality of life. PHQ-9, PFABS and PedsQL scores were compared with historical data (HD) of Wisconsin adolescent athletes (N = 5,231) collected during normal school and sport operations in the years 2016–2018. Results: A total of 3,243 (58% female, Age = 16.1+1.2 yrs., grades 9 – 12) participated in the study. May 2020 participants reported higher (worse) PHQ-9 scores than the HD participants (mean: 8.0 (95%CI: 7.8, 8.2) vs 3.3 (3.1, 3.5), p < 0.001) as well as a higher prevalence of moderate to severe levels of depression (32.9% vs 9.7%, p < 0.001). May 2020 Participants also reported lower (worse) PFABS scores (mean: 12.2 (95%CI: 11.9, 12.5) vs 24.7 (24.5, 24.9) p < 0.001) and lower (worse) PedsQL total scores compared to athletes in the HD group (78.4 (78.0, 78.8) vs. 90.9 (90.5, 91.3) p < 0.001). Females in May 2020 reported increased moderate and severe anxiety percentages than the males in May 2020 (27.7% vs 22.3%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: COVID-19 related school closures and sport cancellations in Wisconsin were associated with increased anxiety and depression as well as decreased physical activity and quality of life in adolescent athletes. The potential negative health impacts of prolonged school closures and sport cancellations should be taken into account when evaluating steps to limit the spread of COVID-19.

13.
J Athl Train ; 57(1): 51-58, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635334

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: During the fall of 2020, some high schools across the United States allowed their students to participate in interscholastic sports while others cancelled or postponed their sport programs due to concerns regarding COVID-19 transmission. What effect this has had on the physical and mental health of adolescents is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of playing a sport during the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of student-athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sample recruited via email. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 559 Wisconsin high school athletes (age = 15.7 ± 1.2 years, female = 43.6%, male = 56.4%) from 44 high schools completed an online survey in October 2020. A total of 171 (30.6%) athletes played (PLY) a fall sport, while 388 (69.4%) did not play (DNP). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographic data included sex, grade, and sport(s) played. Assessments were the General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item for depression, the Hospital for Special Surgery Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale for physical activity, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 for quality of life. Univariable comparisons between the 2 groups were made via t tests or χ2 tests. Means for each continuous outcome measure were compared between groups using analysis-of-variance models that controlled for age, sex, teaching method (virtual, hybrid, or in person), and the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. RESULTS: The PLY group participants were less likely to report moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety (PLY = 6.6%, DNP = 44.1%, P < .001) and depression (PLY = 18.2%, DNP = 40.4%, P < .001). They also demonstrated higher (better) Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale scores (PLY = 23.2 [95% CI = 22.0, 24.5], DNP = 16.4 [95% CI = 15.0, 17.8], P < .001) and higher (better) Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total scores (PLY = 88.4 [95% CI = 85.9, 90.9], DNP = 79.6 [95% CI = 76.8, 82.4], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents who played a sport during the COVID-19 pandemic described fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression and had better physical activity and quality-of-life scores compared with adolescent athletes who did not play a sport.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Athletes , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , United States
15.
Circulation ; 143(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1325212

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telemedicine facilitates continued access to care for management of chronic diseases while preventing exposure to health care facilities;however, reliance on telemedicine may exacerbate disparities based on the persistent digital divide. Documenting racial variation in the uptake of telemedicine is crucial to understand the potential aggravation of health care access inequities in the era of COVID-19. We used a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation (AF) to quantify racial disparities in telehealth utilization before the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypothesis: Black patients are less likely to be engaged with telehealth services than White patients. Methods: Using a 5% random sample of Medicare claims data, we extracted telehealth visits in 2016 using modifiers GT, 95, and GQ and place of service code 2 in medical claims. We used multivariate Poisson models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) comparing the number of telehealth visits across White, Black, and patients of other races. Results: Among 135,164 patients with AF, 404 (0.3%) had a total of 1420 telehealth visits in 2016.After adjusting for age, sex, AF duration, rurality, CHA2DS2-VASc score, Alzheimer's disease, use of direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin, and receipt of low-income subsidy, Black were 60% lesslikely than White to receive telehealth services (IRR 0.4 [0.3, 0.5]), and the 'others' group were 70%less likely to receive telehealth services (0.3 [0.2, 0.5]). Among rural residents, however, the racialdifference in telehealth use was only seen in Black (0.4 [0.2, 0.6]) but not in the 'others' group (0.9[0.6, 1.4]). The gap in telehealth use between White and Black was larger among those with higherCHA2DS2-VASc scores ( Figure) . Conclusion: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, tele health service use was rare overall in patients with AF. However, Black patients, especially those with increased stroke risk, were still significantlyless likely to have access to telemedicine than White patients.

16.
Socius ; 7, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1268188

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had dramatic impacts on economic outcomes across the United States, yet most research on the pandemic’s labor-market impacts has had a national or urban focus. We overcome this limitation using data from the U.S. Current Population Survey’s COVID-19 supplement to study pandemic-related labor-force outcomes in rural and urban areas from May 2020 through February 2021. We find the pandemic has generally had more severe labor-force impacts on urban adults than their rural counterparts. Urban adults were more often to go unpaid for missed hours, to be unable to work, and to be unable to look for work due to COVID-19. However, rural workers were less likely to work remotely than urban workers. These differences persist even when adjusting for adults’ socioeconomic characteristics and state-level factors. Our results suggest that rural-urban differences in the nature of work during the pandemic cannot be explained by well-known demographic and political differences between rural and urban America. © The Author(s) 2021.

17.
Delaware Journal of Public Health ; 6(2), 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1257760

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 crisis highlights the importance of screening for and managing adverse social determinants of health (SDoH). Many of the same SDoH items that put individuals at increased risk of COVID-19 infection have increased dramatically due to the economic repercussions of slowing the viral spread. Methods: This is a review of 3 studies conducted by the Health Services Research Core in the Value Institute at ChristianaCare. The studies had 3 overarching goals: 1) to conduct a survey of primary care providers in Delaware to determine their current methods for collection of social determinants data, 2) to validate a 2-item screening tool for food insecurity, and 3) to assess the geographic distribution of patients with food insecurity. Results: Our studies have demonstrated the importance of screening for SDoH by highlighting the inconsistent data collection of SDoH items, examining the prevalence of food insecurity and validating a standardized instrument for rapid data collection, as well as displaying geospatial differences in food insecurity prevalence across New Castle County, DE. Public Health Implications: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the prevalence of these social determinants in our communities. Therefore, it is imperative to employ screening and geospatial strategies to address the SDoH implications of the novel coronavirus. © 2020, Delaware Academy of Medicine. All rights reserved.

18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 175: 56-64, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245953

ABSTRACT

PB125® is a phytochemical composition providing potent Nrf2 activation as well as a number of direct actions that do not involve Nrf2. Nrf2 is a transcription actor that helps maintain metabolic balance by providing redox-sensitive expression of numerous genes controlling normal day-to-day metabolic pathways. When ordinary metabolism is upset by extraordinary events such as injury, pathogenic infection, air or water pollution, ingestion of toxins, or simply by the slow but incessant changes brought about by aging and genetic variations, Nrf2 may also be called into action by the redox changes resulting from these events, whether acute or chronic. A complicating factor in all of this is that Nrf2 levels decline with aging, leaving the elderly less able to maintain proper redox balance. The dysregulated gene expression that results can cause or exacerbate a wide variety of pathological conditions, including susceptibility to viral infections. This review examines the characteristics desirable in Nrf2 activators that have therapeutic potential, as well as some of the patterns of dysregulated gene expression commonly observed during pulmonary infections and the normalizing effects possible by judicious use of phytochemicals to increase the activation level of available Nrf2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Abietanes/pharmacology , Aged , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Gastrointestinal Nursing ; 18(9):22-27, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-961877

ABSTRACT

Background: Remote clinics, where patients attend appointments over telephone or video calls, are increasingly replacing traditional in-person consultations. In the UK, gastroenterology clinics have generally occurred in hospital outpatient departments, and uptake of remote clinics had been slow, before accelerating in the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims: This literature review aimed to assess the use, advantages and disadvantages of remote clinics in adult and paediatric gastroenterology. Methods: A literature search was carried out for articles in English published since 2000. Findings: Four articles were identified, two on adult and two on paediatric gastroenterology services. Benefits highlighted included high patient satisfaction with and preference for remote clinics, owing to reduced travel time and cost. Services reported reduced nonattendance rates compared with in-person clinics. Authors and patients cautioned that remote clinics should not entirely replace face-to-face contact, which has advantages for visual assessment and building clinician-patient relationships. Conclusions: Remote clinics are effective for gastroenterology services. Further research is recommended to capture the qualitative experience of the patients, families and nurses involved in these remote clinics. © 2020 MA Healthcare Ltd. All rights reserved.

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