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1.
International Journal of Adolescence and Youth ; 27(1):457-474, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2087481

ABSTRACT

Tackling NEEThood remains a major UK policy focus, with numbers of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) stub-bornly high and the COVID-19 Pandemic exacerbating school disengagement and widening inequalities. Drawing on rich qualitative data from a three-year study evaluating educational interventions tackling NEEThood, this paper explores such interventions were successful from the perspectives of the young people and their educators. We introduce five mechanisms underpinning effective support strategies, arguing that these enable a pathway to change for young people. We distinguish between foundational mechanisms, essential at the outset of work with young people, facilitating mechanisms which build on these foundations, and outcome-generating mechanisms which lead to education and work goals. These findings underscore the importance of tackling the social aspects of educational disengagement, as well as the critical role of advocacy and support from an adult who can unpick the complex barriers to engagement and learning.

2.
Journal of Urology ; 207(5):E313-E313, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067991
3.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21:S151, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2062026
5.
Interspeech 2021 ; : 431-435, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2044290

ABSTRACT

The INTERSPEECH 2021 Computational Paralinguistics Challenge addresses four different problems for the first time in a research competition under well-defined conditions: In the COVID-19 Cough and COVID-19 Speech Sub-Challenges, a binary classification on COVID-19 infection has to be made based on coughing sounds and speech;in the Escalation Sub-Challenge, a three-way assessment of the level of escalation in a dialogue is featured;and in the Primates Sub-Challenge, four species vs background need to be classified. We describe the Sub-Challenges, baseline feature extraction, and classifiers based on the 'usual' COMPARE and BoAW features as well as deep unsupervised representation learning using the AUDEEP toolkit, and deep feature extraction from pre-trained CNNs using the DEEP SPECTRUM toolkit;in addition, we add deep end-to-end sequential modelling, and partially linguistic analysis.

7.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009221

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Across diverse ethnic groups in the UK, explore attitudes and intentions towards COVID-19 vaccination and sources of COVID-19 information. Design: Remote qualitative interviews and focus groups (FGs) conducted June–October 2020 before UK COVID-19 vaccine approval. Data were transcribed and analysed through inductive thematic analysis and mapped to the Theoretical Domains Framework. Setting: England and Wales. Participants: 100 participants from 19 self-identified ethnic groups. Results: Mistrust and doubt were reported across ethnic groups. Many participants shared concerns about perceived lack of information about COVID-19 vaccine safety and efficacy. There were differences within each ethnic group, with factors such as occupation and perceived health status influencing intention to accept a vaccine once made available. Across ethnic groups, participants believed that public contact occupations, older adults and vulnerable groups should be prioritised for vaccination. Perceived risk, social influences, occupation, age, comorbidities and engagement with healthcare influenced participants’ intentions to accept vaccination once available. All Jewish FG participants intended to accept, while all Traveller FG participants indicated they probably would not.Facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake across ethnic groups included: desire to return to normality and protect health and well-being;perceived higher risk of infection;evidence of vaccine safety and efficacy;vaccine availability and accessibility.COVID-19 information sources were influenced by social factors and included: friends and family;media and news outlets;research literature;and culture and religion. Participants across most different ethnic groups were concerned about misinformation or had negative attitudes towards the media. Conclusions: During vaccination rollout, including boosters, commissioners and providers should provide accurate information, authentic community outreach and use appropriate channels to disseminate information and counter misinformation. Adopting a context-specific approach to vaccine resources, interventions and policies and empowering communities has potential to increase trust in the programme.

9.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003365

ABSTRACT

Background: Refugees are at risk for low health literacy and high rates of illness and hospitalization. A partnership between medical professionals at Yale and two New-Haven, CT-based refugee resettlement organizations aimed to create and implement a family-based, interactive pediatric healthcare curriculum with a goal of increasing childhood health knowledge among refugee families. Methods: Seven 1-hour, in-person classes and 1 virtual class were taught by pediatric residents with real-time translation in Pashto, Dari, Arabic, Swahili, and Kinyarwanda on the topics of child nutrition, safety, parenting, and oral health. Each class incorporated play-based activities for toddlers-a My Healthy Plate puzzle, street-crossing simulation, teeth-brushing demonstration, and block play-which were integrated into parental discussion with visual aids. Knowledge acquisition and satisfaction was assessed using pre- and posttests. Results: 67 adult participants had an 85% response rate. Average knowledge test scores increased in 5 of 7 classes, reaching significance in a class on parenting (mean 52% vs 90%, paired t-test p = 0.03) and child safety (mean 80% vs 97%, p = 0.04). 100% of respondents (67% response rate) reported increased understanding of the topic and would recommend the class to a friend. There were 5 participants for the virtual class. Conclusion: Child health education classes conducted for refugee families can improve knowledge of pediatric healthcare topics and provide positive experiences. A close relationship between healthcare providers and community refugee organizations has the potential to improve health education in refugee families. Future studies will assess efficacy and satisfaction of virtual classes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21:S129-S130, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996790

ABSTRACT

Background: Highly effective modulator therapy (HEMT) is now available for ∼90% of adults with CF with Kaftrio® licenced for use in the UK from August 2020. Despite continuation of routine CF treatments in randomised controlled trials, real-world evidence suggests a reduction in prescribed inhaled medication for people with CF on HEMT.1 Alongside the introduction of Kaftrio®, additional factors have impacted upon our inhaled medication prescribing practice including the COVID-19 pandemic and the introduction of CFHealthHub, which allows us to monitor nebulised treatment adherence. Objective: To examine how and to what extent our inhaled medication prescribing practice has changed over the past 5 years. Method: A retrospective audit of our prescribed inhaled medication databases from 2016, 2019 and 2021. Results: See table 1. Table 1. Number of CF patients prescribed inhaled mucolytics and long term inhaled therapy for Pa. (Table Presented) Conclusion: Despite an increasing rate of Pa infection,we have observed an overall reduction in prescribing of inhaled antibiotics and mucolytics. HEMTs, particularly Kaftrio®, have improved the health of our patients and, despite our caution, many have requested a reduction of inhaled therapy in line with their improved well-being. Assessment of adherence via CFHealthHub has often led to rationalisation of inhaled treatments in order to support improved adherence. During the COVID-19 pandemic, drug response assessments, the gateway to accessing a change in inhaled medication, have frequently been delayed as we have had to redesign our service in response to changing circumstances.

11.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21:S107-S108, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996783

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the introduction of Kaftrio® in 2020, people with CF (pwCF) have reported significant health improvements. Real-world experiences over the last 2 years suggest that pwCF are using fewer antibiotics. Evidence has confirmed this is the case with nebulised antibiotics, however it is unclear what the impact has been on intravenous antibiotics (IVABx). Objective: To investigate IVABx use in pwCF, in our centre, pre and post Kaftrio® commencement. Method: Retrospective data was collected from our internal pharmacy database on number of IVABx dose units issued pre and post the widespread use of Kaftrio®. Results: Since Jan 2020, 282 pwCF, 81% of our cohort, have commenced on Kaftrio®;initially via clinical trials and compassionate use programmes, then more widely from August 2020 following its UK licence. (Table Presented) Pharmacy data shows overall IVABx prescriptions have reduced consistently since 2019 with a trend towards less inpatient therapy. Conclusion: Data suggests that the use of IVABx has reduced in our centre since the introduction of Kaftrio®. Other factors which may have influenced IVABx usage during this period include the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to pwCF “shielding” for several months during 2020, providing protection from community acquired infections and potentially increasing anxiety levels around seeking in-patient healthcare. CFHealthHub has also been vital during this time, supporting pwCF to increase their adherence to longterm nebulised treatments. Further work is needed to investigate the trends of antibiotic usage (nebulised and IV) beyond the pandemic and the effect on the long-term health outcomes of pwCF.

12.
8th International Conference on Movement and Computing, MOCO 2022 ; Par F180475, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950316

ABSTRACT

Skin Hunger is a web-based interactive system for telematic installation and performance that plays on the zoom-style video-chat that has become ubiquitous during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in the telematic installation can reach across the webcam screens to virtually 'touch' one another. By touching or moving together, participants create virtual organisms and sounds that emerge and evolve from participant relation and interaction, making the intangible connection tangible and giving it life. Skin Hunger explores a new way of enabling embodied joint music making and movement over a distance. © 2022 ACM.

13.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):170, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928073

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Hospital responses to COVID-19 included reorganisation of services to limit infection spread, restricted access for family members, and redeployment of staff and other resources, which may be reflected in door-to-needle time (DNT) for thrombolysis. We reviewed routinely collected data on DNT over the course of the pandemic. Methods: Routinely collected performance data on thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke at a large academic centre from 01/01/2018 - 31/01/2021 were collated. Data are presented as mean (95%CI). Nonparametric data were normalised with logarithmic transformation. Single and multiple comparisons were calculated using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD test respectively. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. Significant factors were used to create a binary logistic regression model to predict DTN time <60mins. Results: Mean DNT was 49mins (44.4-53.4) in 2018 (n=205), 40mins (36.8-44.1) in 2019 (n=203), 61min (55.8-66.1) in 2020-21 (n=154). Trends in DNT, DTCT and CTTN are presented (Figure). DNT was significantly prolonged comparing pre-COVID 44mins (42.1-47.6) and post-COVID 63.1mins (58.1-69.1) periods (t(560)=6.177,p<0.01), mean difference 18.9mins (12.9-25.0). Regression analysis revealed the odds of DNT <60mins were reduced by 94% during the post-COVID period (CI=0.009-0.379,p<0.01), adjusted for NIHSS, year of presentation, anticoagulation at onset and hospital transfer status. The model displayed significant predictive power, AUROC 0.771 (0.712-0.830,p<0.01). Conclusion: COVID-19 has adversely impacted impact on our DNT and was associated with increase of 18mins compared with pre-pandemic and decreased odds of DNT <60mins. Limited data on specific factors modified in response to the pandemic limit conclusions. (Figure Presented).

15.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S490-S490, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904779
16.
Journal of Urology ; 207(SUPPL 5):e313, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886493

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 created immense anxiety amongst caregivers and unique strain on healthcare resources which is ongoing. We created a protocol to address this by examining the nature of consults (C) during the pandemic, describe which C needed to be managed in-person, and demonstrated that remote management of many C is appropriate. METHODS: A REDCAP database was used over a six weeks to record urology C at our institution. Data included COVID-status of the patient, reason for C, patient characteristics, and type of intervention required. RESULTS: We received 154 C during the study period. 53% were evaluated in person. 47% were managed remotely. Most common reasons for C were difficult foley catheter placement (21%), obstructing stones(16%), retention (14%) and hematuria (12%). Less common entities included priapism (3%) and Fournier's gangrene (3%). At the time of C 58% were COVID negative, 30% were COVID positive. After evaluation, 44% of C needed no intervention, 27% required a foley, 8% required bladder irrigation and 4% required stenting or nephrostomy placement. Outcomes of those evaluated remotely did not reflect any issues with the care rendered. Fig 1 represents C requests and Fig 2 interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a higher percentage of C during COVID-19 requiring intervention compared to pre-COVID literature which we successfully identified. 44% did not require acute in-patient intervention. We have shown there is an important role that remote care can and should play in our specialty. Not all C need hands on intervention and studies such as this will result in a safe and logical algorithm for the management of C. With this approach, it became very apparent that not all C are appropriate. This can lead to enhancing the skill set of other house staff. Lastly, the lack of urgency of a large percentage of what we are consulted for becomes apparent. In the face of demands for decreased work hours amongst house staff, strained resources during the pandemic, and the anxiety of the unknown of this virus, we have been able to redefine how C services are delivered.

17.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):377-378, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880557

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, HIV care providers urgently adopted telemedicine as an alternative to routine in-person person visits to ensure continuity of care. We examined how introducing televisits at a community and an academic outpatient HIV clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic affected technical quality of care for persons with HIV (PWH). Methods: The study included all non-pregnant adult PWH who had at least two visits for HIV care in the 18 months prior to 3/13/2020 at the Howard Brown Health Centers (HB) and Northwestern University Infectious Disease Center (NU-IDC) and in Chicago, Illinois. HIV care quality indicators (described in Table) were calculated using data extracted from electronic medical records during 4 different time periods: 1. pre-pandemic (1/1/19-3/1/2020), 2. early pandemic (7/1/2019-9/1/2020), 3. mid-pandemic (1/1/2020-3/1/2021), and 4. current (7/1/2020-9/1/2021). Measures were compared between intervals 2-4 and interval 1 (pre-pandemic) using generalized linear mixed models to estimate differences in indicators across intervals within each site while controlling for multiple observations of individuals. Differences by age group, race, and sex at birth were also compared. Results: 6,447 PWH were included in the analysis. The proportion of televisits peaked between April-June 2020 (71-75% at HB 53-89% at NU-IDC) then declined by July-September (33-35%at HB, 10-15% at NU). Changes in quality care measures are shown in Table 1. There were significant declines in care utilization and disease monitoring measures in intervals 2,3 &4 compared to interval 1. The largest declines were observed in STI screening. Measures of HIV virologic suppression, BP control, and HbA1C <7% (in both persons with and without diabetes) were stable with no significant differences noted in these measures between interval 4 and 1. Similar trends were observed across all age, race and sex subgroups. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic and rapid implementation of televisits, indicators of care utilization and disease monitoring decreased compared to pre-pandemic levels. Despite these reductions, proportions with virologic, BP, and glycemic control remained stable among PWH. The effect of televisits as well as other patient factors on HIV quality indicators and their changes over time during COVID-19 need to be further examined.

18.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847168

ABSTRACT

This paper considers the engagement by teachers and school leaders in England in educational practices that are both ‘research-informed’ and supportive of inclusive education. We do so by seeking to understand the benefits, costs, and signifying factors these educators associate with research-use. In undertaking the study, we first worked to develop and refine a survey instrument (the ‘Research-Use BCS survey’) that could be used to uniquely and simultaneously measure these concepts. Our survey development involved a comprehensive process that comprised: (1) a review of recent literature;(2) item pre-testing;and (3) cognitive interviews. We then administered this questionnaire to a representative sample of English educators. Although response rates were somewhat impacted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, we achieved a sufficient number of responses (147 in total) to allow us to engage in descriptive analyses, as well as the production of classification trees. Our analysis resulted in several key findings, including that: (1) if respondents see the benefits of research, they are likely to use it (with the converse also true);(2) if educators have the needed support of their colleagues, they are more likely to use research;and (3) perceiving research-use as an activity that successful teachers and schools engage in is also associated with individual-level research use. We conclude the paper by pointing to potential interventions and strategies that might serve (at least, in the English context) to enhance research-use, so increasing the likelihood of the development and use of effective inclusive practices in schools. Copyright © 2022 Brown, MacGregor, Flood and Malin.

19.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334715

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant quickly rose to dominance in mid-2021, displacing other variants, including Alpha. Studies using data from the United Kingdom and India estimated that Delta was 40-80% more transmissible than Alpha, allowing Delta to become the globally dominant variant. However, it was unclear if the ostensible difference in relative transmissibility was due mostly to innate properties of Delta's infectiousness or differences in the study populations. To investigate, we formed a partnership with SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance programs from all six New England US states. By comparing logistic growth rates, we found that Delta emerged 37-163% faster than Alpha in early 2021 (37% Massachusetts, 75% New Hampshire, 95% Maine, 98% Rhode Island, 151% Connecticut, and 163% Vermont). We next computed variant-specific effective reproductive numbers and estimated that Delta was 58-120% more transmissible than Alpha across New England (58% New Hampshire, 68% Massachusetts, 76% Connecticut, 85% Rhode Island, 98% Maine, and 120% Vermont). Finally, using RT-PCR data, we estimated that Delta infections generate on average ~6 times more viral RNA copies per mL than Alpha infections. Overall, our evidence indicates that Delta's enhanced transmissibility could be attributed to its innate ability to increase infectiousness, but its epidemiological dynamics may vary depending on the underlying immunity and behavior of distinct populations.

20.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-334505

ABSTRACT

The summer of 2020 was marked by widespread protests. Though research has often examined the predictors of protest participation, there exists little work examining the relationship between different types of wealth and protesting. Drawing on resource-based theories of protest participation and asset-based theories of civic engagement, we construct regression models disentangling relationships between income, liquid assets, investment assets, homeownership, and protesting. Using a national survey administered during the protests, we find that liquid assets are negatively associated, homeownership is positively associated, and investment assets exhibit a non-linear association with protesting. These relationships hold when controlling for income, demographics, and ideology, but largely disappear when controlling for measures of economic vulnerability. These results are consistent across different protest types. This work speaks to the role of protests as a means of political participation for economically marginalized groups, and contributes to our knowledge of the intersection between economic indicators and political behaviors.

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