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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimating the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for setting public health policies. We leveraged de-identified Massachusetts newborn screening specimens to generate an accessible, retrospective source of maternal antibodies for estimating statewide SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a non-test-seeking population. METHODS: We analyzed 72,117 newborn dried blood spots collected from November 2019 through December 2020, representing 337 towns and cities across Massachusetts. Seroprevalence was estimated for the general Massachusetts population after correcting for imperfect test specificity and nonrepresentative sampling using Bayesian multilevel regression and poststratification. RESULTS: Statewide seroprevalence was estimated to be 0.03% (90% credible interval (CI) [0.00, 0.11]) in November 2019 and rose to 1.47% (90% CI [1.00, 2.13]) by May 2020, following sustained SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the spring. Seroprevalence plateaued from May onwards, reaching 2.15% (90% CI [1.56, 2.98]) in December 2020. Seroprevalence varied substantially by community and was particularly associated with community percent non-Hispanic Black (ß = 0.024, 90% CI [0.004, 0.044]); i.e., a 10% increase in community percent non-Hispanic Black was associated with a 27% higher odds of seropositivity. Seroprevalence estimates had good concordance with reported case counts and wastewater surveillance for most of 2020, prior to the resurgence of transmission in winter. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 protective antibody in Massachusetts was low as of December 2020, indicating that a substantial fraction of the population was still susceptible. Maternal seroprevalence data from newborn screening can inform longitudinal trends and identify cities and towns at highest risk, particularly in settings where widespread diagnostic testing is unavailable.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(641): eabn6150, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807307

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have been reported frequently in vaccinated individuals with waning immunity. In particular, a cluster of over 1000 infections with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant was identified in a predominantly fully vaccinated population in Provincetown, Massachusetts in July 2021. In this study, vaccinated individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 16) demonstrated substantially higher serum antibody responses than vaccinated individuals who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 23), including 32-fold higher binding antibody titers and 31-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Vaccinated individuals who tested positive also showed higher mucosal antibody responses in nasal secretions and higher spike protein-specific CD8+ T cell responses in peripheral blood than did vaccinated individuals who tested negative. These data demonstrate that fully vaccinated individuals developed robust anamnestic antibody and T cell responses after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Moreover, these findings suggest that population immunity will likely increase over time by a combination of widespread vaccination and breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans
3.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100583, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735052

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant rose to dominance in mid-2021, likely propelled by an estimated 40%-80% increased transmissibility over Alpha. To investigate if this ostensible difference in transmissibility is uniform across populations, we partner with public health programs from all six states in New England in the United States. We compare logistic growth rates during each variant's respective emergence period, finding that Delta emerged 1.37-2.63 times faster than Alpha (range across states). We compute variant-specific effective reproductive numbers, estimating that Delta is 63%-167% more transmissible than Alpha (range across states). Finally, we estimate that Delta infections generate on average 6.2 (95% CI 3.1-10.9) times more viral RNA copies per milliliter than Alpha infections during their respective emergence. Overall, our evidence suggests that Delta's enhanced transmissibility can be attributed to its innate ability to increase infectiousness, but its epidemiological dynamics may vary depending on underlying population attributes and sequencing data availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New England/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac044, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Case-based surveillance of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases underestimates the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among children and adolescents. Our objectives were to estimate monthly SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence and calculate ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infections to reported COVID-19 cases among children and adolescents in 8 US states. METHODS: Using data from the Nationwide Commercial Laboratory Seroprevalence Survey, we estimated monthly SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence among children aged 0-17 years from August 2020 through May 2021. We calculated and compared cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection extrapolated from population-standardized seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, cumulative COVID-19 case reports since March 2020, and infection-to-case ratios among persons of all ages and children aged 0-17 years for each state. RESULTS: Of 41 583 residual serum specimens tested, children aged 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years accounted for 1619 (3.9%), 10 507 (25.3%), and 29 457 (70.8%), respectively. Median SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence among children increased from 8% (range, 6%-20%) in August 2020 to 37% (range, 26%-44%) in May 2021. Estimated ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infections to reported COVID-19 cases in May 2021 ranged by state from 4.7-8.9 among children and adolescents to 2.2-3.9 for all ages combined. CONCLUSIONS: Through May 2021 in selected states, the majority of children with serum specimens included in serosurveys did not have evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Case-based surveillance underestimated the number of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 more than among all ages. Continued monitoring of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence should inform prevention and vaccination strategies.

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1696149

ABSTRACT

Background Case-based surveillance of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases underestimates the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among children and adolescents. Our objectives were to estimate monthly SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence and calculate ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infections to reported COVID-19 cases among children and adolescents in 8 US states. Methods Using data from the Nationwide Commercial Laboratory Seroprevalence Survey, we estimated monthly SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence among children aged 0–17 years from August 2020 through May 2021. We calculated and compared cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection extrapolated from population-standardized seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, cumulative COVID-19 case reports since March 2020, and infection-to-case ratios among persons of all ages and children aged 0–17 years for each state. Results Of 41 583 residual serum specimens tested, children aged 0–4, 5–11, and 12–17 years accounted for 1619 (3.9%), 10 507 (25.3%), and 29 457 (70.8%), respectively. Median SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence among children increased from 8% (range, 6%–20%) in August 2020 to 37% (range, 26%–44%) in May 2021. Estimated ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infections to reported COVID-19 cases in May 2021 ranged by state from 4.7–8.9 among children and adolescents to 2.2–3.9 for all ages combined. Conclusions Through May 2021 in selected states, the majority of children with serum specimens included in serosurveys did not have evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Case-based surveillance underestimated the number of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 more than among all ages. Continued monitoring of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence should inform prevention and vaccination strategies. We estimated monthly pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infections from antibody seroprevalence compared to reported COVID-19 cases among children in 8 US states. As of May 2021, estimated numbers of children infected were 5 times higher than reported pediatric COVID-19 cases in included states.

6.
Pediatrics ; 149(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mandatory quarantine upon exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in a substantial number of lost days of school. We hypothesized that implementation of a state-wide test-to-stay (TTS) program would allow more students to participate in in-person learning, and not cause additional clusters of COVID-19 cases due to in-school transmission. METHODS: For the 2020-2021 academic year, Massachusetts implemented an opt-in TTS program, in which students exposed to COVID-19 in school are tested each school day with a rapid antigen test. If negative, students may participate in school-related activities that day. Testing occurs daily for a duration of 7 calendar days after exposure. Here, we report the results from the first 13 weeks of the program. RESULTS: A total of 2298 schools signed up for TTS, and 504 167 individuals out of a total population of 860 457 consented. During the first 13 weeks with complete data, 1959 schools activated the program at least once for 102 373 individual, exposed students. Out of 328 271 tests performed, 2943 positive cases were identified (per person positivity rate, 2.9%, 95% confidence interval, 2.8-3.0). A minimum of 325 328 and a maximum of 497 150 days of in-person school were saved through participation in the program. CONCLUSIONS: Daily, rapid on-site antigen testing is a safe and feasible alternative to mandatory quarantine and can be used to maximize safe in-person learning time during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
7.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1083-1094, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671607

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated a clear need for high-throughput, multiplexed and sensitive assays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viruses and their emerging variants. Here, we present a cost-effective virus and variant detection platform, called microfluidic Combinatorial Arrayed Reactions for Multiplexed Evaluation of Nucleic acids (mCARMEN), which combines CRISPR-based diagnostics and microfluidics with a streamlined workflow for clinical use. We developed the mCARMEN respiratory virus panel to test for up to 21 viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, other coronaviruses and both influenza strains, and demonstrated its diagnostic-grade performance on 525 patient specimens in an academic setting and 166 specimens in a clinical setting. We further developed an mCARMEN panel to enable the identification of 6 SARS-CoV-2 variant lineages, including Delta and Omicron, and evaluated it on 2,088 patient specimens with near-perfect concordance to sequencing-based variant classification. Lastly, we implemented a combined Cas13 and Cas12 approach that enables quantitative measurement of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A viral copies in samples. The mCARMEN platform enables high-throughput surveillance of multiple viruses and variants simultaneously, enabling rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Microfluidics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S695-S695, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1565006

ABSTRACT

Background We developed a syndromic algorithm for COVID-19 like illness (CLI) to provide supplementary surveillance data on COVID-19 activity. Methods The CLI algorithm was developed using the Electronic Medical Record Support for Public Health platform (esphealth.org) and data from five clinical practice groups in Massachusetts that collectively care for 25% of the state’s population. Signs and symptoms of CLI were identified using ICD-10 diagnosis codes and measured temperature. The algorithm originally included three categories: Category 1 required codes for coronavirus infection and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI);Category 2 required an LRTI-related diagnosis and fever;Category 3 required an upper or lower RTI and fever. The three categories mirrored statewide laboratory-confirmed case trends during spring and summer 2020 but did not detect the increase in late fall. We hypothesized this was due to the requirements for fever and LRTI. Therefore, we added three new categories defined by milder symptoms without fever: Category 4 requires LRTI-related diagnoses only;Category 5 requires upper or lower RTI or olfactory/taste disorders;and Category 6 requires at least one sign of CLI not identified by another category. Results The six-category algorithm detected the initial surge in April 2020, the summer lull, and the second surge in late fall (see figure). Category 1 cases were not identified until mid-March, which coincides with the first laboratory-confirmed cases in Massachusetts. Categories 2 and 3, which required fever, were prominent during the initial surge but declined over time. Category 5, the broadest category, declined during February and March 2020, likely capturing the end of the influenza season, and successfully detected the spring surge and fall resurgence. Weekly number of COVID-19 like illnesses by category, February 2, 2020 through May 8, 2021 Conclusion A syndromic definition that included mild upper RTI and olfactory/taste disorders, with or without fever or LRTI, mirrored changes in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases better than definitions that required fever and LRTI. This suggests a shift in medically attended care and/or coding practices during initial vs subsequent surges of COVID-19, and the importance of using a broad definition of CLI for ongoing surveillance. Disclosures Michael Klompas, MD, MPH, UpToDate (Other Financial or Material Support, Chapter Author)

10.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388436

ABSTRACT

Analysis of 772 complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes from early in the Boston-area epidemic revealed numerous introductions of the virus, a small number of which led to most cases. The data revealed two superspreading events. One, in a skilled nursing facility, led to rapid transmission and significant mortality in this vulnerable population but little broader spread, whereas other introductions into the facility had little effect. The second, at an international business conference, produced sustained community transmission and was exported, resulting in extensive regional, national, and international spread. The two events also differed substantially in the genetic variation they generated, suggesting varying transmission dynamics in superspreading events. Our results show how genomic epidemiology can help to understand the link between individual clusters and wider community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(31): 1059-1062, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344580

ABSTRACT

During July 2021, 469 cases of COVID-19 associated with multiple summer events and large public gatherings in a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, were identified among Massachusetts residents; vaccination coverage among eligible Massachusetts residents was 69%. Approximately three quarters (346; 74%) of cases occurred in fully vaccinated persons (those who had completed a 2-dose course of mRNA vaccine [Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna] or had received a single dose of Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine ≥14 days before exposure). Genomic sequencing of specimens from 133 patients identified the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in 119 (89%) and the Delta AY.3 sublineage in one (1%). Overall, 274 (79%) vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection were symptomatic. Among five COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized, four were fully vaccinated; no deaths were reported. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values in specimens from 127 vaccinated persons with breakthrough cases were similar to those from 84 persons who were unvaccinated, not fully vaccinated, or whose vaccination status was unknown (median = 22.77 and 21.54, respectively). The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible (1); vaccination is the most important strategy to prevent severe illness and death. On July 27, CDC recommended that all persons, including those who are fully vaccinated, should wear masks in indoor public settings in areas where COVID-19 transmission is high or substantial.* Findings from this investigation suggest that even jurisdictions without substantial or high COVID-19 transmission might consider expanding prevention strategies, including masking in indoor public settings regardless of vaccination status, given the potential risk of infection during attendance at large public gatherings that include travelers from many areas with differing levels of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Crowding , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(2): 198-206, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006455

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public health responses often lack the infrastructure to capture the impact of public health emergencies on pregnant women and infants, with limited mechanisms for linking pregnant women with their infants nationally to monitor long-term effects. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in close collaboration with state, local, and territorial health departments, began a 5-year initiative to establish population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance, the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe an expanded surveillance approach that leverages and modernizes existing surveillance systems to address the impact of emerging health threats during pregnancy on pregnant women and their infants. METHODS: Mother-baby pairs are identified through prospective identification during pregnancy and/or identification of an infant with retrospective linking to maternal information. All data are obtained from existing data sources (e.g., electronic medical records, vital statistics, laboratory reports, and health department investigations and case reporting). RESULTS: Variables were selected for inclusion to address key surveillance questions proposed by CDC and health department subject matter experts. General variables include maternal demographics and health history, pregnancy and infant outcomes, maternal and infant laboratory results, and child health outcomes up to the second birthday. Exposure-specific modular variables are included for hepatitis C, syphilis, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The system is structured into four relational datasets (maternal, pregnancy outcomes and birth, infant/child follow-up, and laboratory testing). DISCUSSION: SET-NET provides a population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance approach and has already demonstrated rapid adaptation to COVID-19. This innovative approach leverages existing data sources and rapidly collects data and informs clinical guidance and practice. These data can help to reduce exposure risk and adverse outcomes among pregnant women and their infants, direct public health action, and strengthen public health systems.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense/methods , Mother-Child Relations , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Civil Defense/instrumentation , Female , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mass Screening/methods , Pregnancy , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(19): 587-590, 2020 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-262420

ABSTRACT

An estimated 2.1 million U.S. adults are housed within approximately 5,000 correctional and detention facilities† on any given day (1). Many facilities face significant challenges in controlling the spread of highly infectious pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Such challenges include crowded dormitories, shared lavatories, limited medical and isolation resources, daily entry and exit of staff members and visitors, continual introduction of newly incarcerated or detained persons, and transport of incarcerated or detained persons in multiperson vehicles for court-related, medical, or security reasons (2,3). During April 22-28, 2020, aggregate data on COVID-19 cases were reported to CDC by 37 of 54 state and territorial health department jurisdictions. Thirty-two (86%) jurisdictions reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case from a total of 420 correctional and detention facilities. Among these facilities, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 4,893 incarcerated or detained persons and 2,778 facility staff members, resulting in 88 deaths in incarcerated or detained persons and 15 deaths among staff members. Prompt identification of COVID-19 cases and consistent application of prevention measures, such as symptom screening and quarantine, are critical to protecting incarcerated and detained persons and staff members.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisons , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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