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BMJ Open ; 12(3): e060826, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731283


INTRODUCTION: As the prevalence of Long COVID increases, there is a critical need for a comprehensive assessment of disability. Our aims are to: (1) characterise disability experiences among people living with Long COVID in Canada, UK, USA and Ireland; and (2) develop a patient-reported outcome measure to assess the presence, severity and episodic nature of disability with Long COVID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In phase 1, we will conduct semistructured interviews with adults living with Long COVID to explore experiences of disability (dimensions, uncertainty, trajectories, influencing contextual factors) and establish an episodic disability (ED) framework in the context of Long COVID (n~10 each country). Using the conceptual framework, we will establish the Long COVID Episodic Disability Questionnaire (EDQ). In phase 2, we will examine the validity (construct, structural) and reliability (internal consistency, test-retest) of the EDQ for use in Long COVID. We will electronically administer the EDQ and four health status criterion measures with adults living with Long COVID, and readminister the EDQ 1 week later (n~170 each country). We will use Rasch analysis to refine the EDQ, and confirm structural and cross-cultural validity. We will calculate Cronbach's alphas (internal consistency reliability), and intraclass correlation coefficients (test-retest reliability), and examine correlations for hypotheses theorising relationships between EDQ and criterion measure scores (construct validity). Using phase 2 data, we will characterise the profile of disability using structural equation modelling techniques to examine relationships between dimensions of disability and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic contextual factors. This research involves an academic-clinical-community partnership building on foundational work in ED measurement, Long COVID and rehabilitation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board. Knowledge translation will occur with community collaborators in the form of presentations and publications in open access peer-reviewed journals and presentations.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Concept Formation , Disability Evaluation , HIV Infections/rehabilitation , Humans , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 87, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526645


BACKGROUND: Events associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, such as physical distancing, closure of community services, postponement of health appointments, and loss of employment can lead to social isolation, financial uncertainty, and interruption of antiretroviral adherence, resulting in additional health-related challenges (disability) experienced among adults living with chronic illness such as HIV. 'Living strategies' is a concept derived from the perspectives of people living with HIV, defined as behaviors, attitudes and beliefs adopted by people living with HIV to help deal with disability associated with HIV and multi-morbidity. Our aim was to describe disability among adults living with HIV and self-care living strategies used during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Adults living with HIV in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, including some with pre-pandemic HIV Disability Questionnaire (HDQ) data, completed a cross-sectional web-based survey between June-August 2020. The survey included the HDQ and questions about self-care living strategy use during the pandemic. We compared disability (HDQ) scores prior to versus during the pandemic using paired t-tests. We reported the proportion of participants who engaged in various living strategies at least 'a few times a week' or 'everyday' during the pandemic. RESULTS: Of the 63 respondents, 84% were men, median age 57 years, and 62% lived alone. During the pandemic the greatest disability severity was in the uncertainty [median 30; Interquartile range (IQR): 16, 43] and mental-emotional (25; IQR: 14, 41) domains. Among the 51 participants with pre-pandemic data, HDQ severity scores were significantly greater (worse) during the pandemic (vs prior) in all domains. Greatest change from prior to during the pandemic was in the mental-emotional domain for presence (17.7; p < 0.001), severity (11.4; p < 0.001), and episodic nature (9.3; p < 0.05) of disability. Most participants (> 60%) reported engaging a 'few times a week' or 'everyday' in self-care strategies associated with maintaining sense of control and adopting positive attitudes and beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: People living with HIV reported high levels of uncertainty and mental-emotional health challenges during the pandemic. Disability increased across all HDQ dimensions, with the greatest worsening in the mental-emotional health domain. Results provide an understanding of disability and self-care strategy use during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435047