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1.
Pers Individ Dif ; 195: 111672, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799765

ABSTRACT

The impact of reduced social contact on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a major public health concern. While personality factors such as attachment style have been associated with psychological distress during the pandemic, the longitudinal relevance of these factors and the role of daily social contact in mitigating distress remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of social contact and attachment style on changes in loneliness over an 8-week experience sampling period during the COVID-19 pandemic. A general adult sample (n = 184) recruited online completed measures of psychological distress, attachment, and loneliness via smartphone. Loneliness and daily social contact were assessed twice per week for eight weeks, yielding 1124 unique observations. During the experience sampling period, proximal increases in loneliness were associated with decreased daily in-person contact. In contrast, participants who described themselves as having fewer interactions via text, phone, or videoconferencing, as well as those with higher anxious and avoidant attachment traits, reported greater experiences of loneliness over time. These findings suggest the relevance of both enduring personality characteristics and daily social behaviors as risk factors for loneliness during the pandemic, pointing to potential targets for clinical intervention and future empirical study.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328937

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health have led to efforts to understand how pandemic-specific factors, such as decreased social contact during periods of social distancing, may relate to suicide risk. The present study evaluated personality-based risk factors and frequency of social contact as prospective predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) during the pandemic. Methods. We tested a relational diathesis-stress model of suicide focusing on insecure attachment, trait loneliness, and social contact as predictors of SI, using twice-weekly survey data collected via smartphone from a community sample (n=184) over eight weeks. Results. Multilevel modeling showed that both trait loneliness and anxious attachment predicted the prospective development of SI during the study period. Reduced in-person contact, but not remote contact, was proximally associated with increased SI. Participants with low attachment anxiety, high attachment avoidance, and high trait loneliness were more likely to develop SI in the context of reduced daily in-person contact compared to participants without these traits. Conclusion. Findings support a relational diathesis-stress model of suicide risk during the pandemic, showing that dispositional traits related to emotional connection with others predicted the relative salience of reduced social contact as a proximal risk factor for SI.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328928

ABSTRACT

The impact of reduced social contact on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a major public health concern. While personality factors such as attachment style have been associated with psychological distress during the pandemic, the longitudinal relevance of these factors and the role of daily social contact in mitigating distress remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of social contact and attachment style on changes in loneliness over an 8-week experience sampling period during the COVID-19 pandemic. A general adult sample (n=184) recruited online completed measures of psychological distress, attachment, and loneliness via smartphone. Loneliness and daily social contact were assessed twice per week for eight weeks, yielding 1,124 unique observations. During the experience sampling period, proximal increases in loneliness were associated with decreased daily in-person contact. In contrast, participants who described themselves as having fewer interactions via text, phone, or videoconferencing, as well as those with higher anxious and avoidant attachment traits, reported greater experiences of loneliness over time. These findings suggest the relevance of both enduring personality characteristics and daily social behaviors as risk factors for loneliness during the pandemic, pointing to potential targets for clinical intervention and future empirical study.

4.
Emerging Adulthood ; : 21676968211067327, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1666606

ABSTRACT

Emerging research suggests young adults, in particular women, may be especially sensitive to changes associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. This study, which is part of an ongoing research project focusing on young adulthood and substance use during the UK COVID-19 lockdown, aimed to provide an in-depth snapshot of factors that young adult women may describe as influential in their alcohol consumption during this period. Virtual semi-structured interviews were carried out on a sample of 12 (23?25 years) women between April and May 2020. The data were analysed through thematic analysis and preliminary findings led to the identification of three themes: (1) Changes to working environment, (2) Limitations on social opportunities and efforts to socialise in a ?new normal?, and (3) Effects of cohabitation on increased alcohol consumption. The preliminary findings of this study highlight factors relevant to changes in alcohol use during the COVID-19 outbreak in the UK.

5.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001091, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102372

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a worldwide pandemic causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic devastation. In response, many laboratories have redirected attention to SARS-CoV-2, meaning there is an urgent need for tools that can be used in laboratories unaccustomed to working with coronaviruses. Here we report a range of tools for SARS-CoV-2 research. First, we describe a facile single plasmid SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics system that is simple to genetically manipulate and can be used to rescue infectious virus through transient transfection (without in vitro transcription or additional expression plasmids). The rescue system is accompanied by our panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (against nearly every viral protein), SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates, and SARS-CoV-2 permissive cell lines, which are all openly available to the scientific community. Using these tools, we demonstrate here that the controversial ORF10 protein is expressed in infected cells. Furthermore, we show that the promising repurposed antiviral activity of apilimod is dependent on TMPRSS2 expression. Altogether, our SARS-CoV-2 toolkit, which can be directly accessed via our website at https://mrcppu-covid.bio/, constitutes a resource with considerable potential to advance COVID-19 vaccine design, drug testing, and discovery science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Reverse Genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Codon , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Mice , Morpholines/pharmacology , Open Reading Frames , Plasmids/genetics , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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