Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 272
Filter
1.
Leukemia ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568768

ABSTRACT

Idelalisib targets PI3Kδ in the BCR pathway generating only a partial response in CLL patients, indicating that the leukemic cells may have evolved escape signals. Indeed, we detected increased activation of AKT accompanied by upregulation of MYC/BCL2 in post-therapy CLL cells from patients treated with idelalisib/ofatumumab. To unravel the mechanism of increased AKT-activation, we studied the impact of idelalisib on a CLL-derived cell line, MEC1, as a model. After an initial inhibition, AKT-activation level was restored in idelalisib-treated MEC1 cells in a time-dependent manner. As BCAP (B-cell adaptor for PI3K) and CD19 recruit PI3Kδ to activate AKT upon BCR-stimulation, we examined if idelalisib-treatment altered PI3Kδ-recruitment. Immunoprecipitation of BCAP/CD19 from idelalisib-treated MEC1 cells showed increased recruitment of PI3Kδ in association with PI3Kß, but not PI3Kα or PI3Kγ and that, targeting both PI3Kδ with PI3Kß inhibited AKT-reactivation. We detected similar, patient-specific recruitment pattern of PI3K-isoforms by BCAP/CD19 in post-idelalisib CLL cells with increased AKT-activation. Interestingly, a stronger inhibitory effect of idelalisib on P-AKT (T308) than S473 was discernible in idelalisib-treated cells despite increased recruitment of PI3Kδ/PI3Kß and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate; which could be attributed to reduced PDK1 activity. Thus, administration of isoform-specific inhibitors may prove more effective strategy for treating CLL patients.

2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 909655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557950
3.
Haematologica ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484662

ABSTRACT

PI3KPPinhibitors are active in patients with lymphoid neoplasms and a first series of them have been approved for the treatment of multiple types of B-cell lymphoid tumors, including marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). The identification of the mechanisms underlying either primary or secondary resistance is fundamental to optimize the use of novel drugs. Here, we present a model of secondary resistance to PI3Kffinhibitors obtained by prolonged exposure of a splenic MZL cell line to idelalisib. The VL51 cell line was kept under continuous exposure to idelalisib. The study included detailed characterization of the model, pharmacological screens, silencing experiments, validation experiments on multiple cell lines and on clinical specimens. VL51 developed resistance to idelalisib, copanlisib, duvelisib, and umbralisib. An integrative analysis of transcriptome and methylation underlined an enrichment of up-regulated transcripts and lowmethylated promoters in resistant cells, including IL-6/STAT3 and PDGFRA related genes and surface CD19 expression, alongside the repression of the let-7 family miRNAs, of miR-125, miR-130, miR-193 and miR-20. The use of the IL-6R blocking antibody tocilizumab, the STAT3 inhibitor stattic, the LIN28 inhibitor LIN1632, the PDGFR inhibitor masitinib and the anti-CD19 antibody drug conjugate loncastuximab tesirine were active compounds in the resistant cells as single agents and/or in combination with PI3K//inhibition. Findings were validated on additional in vitro lymphoma models and on clinical specimens. A novel model of resistance obtained from splenic MZL allowed the identification of therapeutic approaches able to improve the anti-tumor activity of PI3Kttinhibitors in B-cell lymphoid tumors.

4.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(5): e327-e339, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Odronextamab is a hinge-stabilised, fully human IgG4-based CD20 × CD3 bispecific antibody that binds CD3 on T cells and CD20 on B cells. We aimed to evaluate the safety and antitumour activity of odronextamab in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: This single-arm, multicentre, phase 1, dose-escalation and dose-expansion (ELM-1) trial was conducted at ten academic sites across the USA and Germany. Patients aged 18 years or older with CD20-positive relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies who previously received CD20-directed antibody therapy and who had at least one measurable lesion, and an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 were included. Patients received intravenous odronextamab, according to a step-up dosing schedule in cycle 1, followed by treatment once per week at target doses ranging from 0·1 mg to 320 mg during cycles 2-4 (each cycle was 21 days). After cycle 4, maintenance treatment occurred every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint of safety was assessed by the incidence of adverse events and dose-limiting toxicities to determine the maximum tolerated dose or phase 2 dose of odronextamab, or both. Preliminary antitumour activity, as measured by objective response rate, was a secondary endpoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02290951. FINDINGS: From Feb 4, 2015, to Sept 25, 2021, 145 heavily pretreated patients (median of 3 (IQR 2-5] previous therapies) were enrolled (94 to the dose-escalation and 51 to the dose-expansion part of the study). The median age of patients was 67·0 years (IQR 57·0-73·0); 101 (70%) were male and 44 (30%) were female; most participants were White (119 [82%]) and not Hispanic or Latino (132 [91%]). 42 (29%) patients received previous CAR T therapy and 119 (82%) were refractory to the last line of therapy. Median duration of follow-up was 4·2 months (IQR 1·5-11·5). During dose escalation, odronextamab was administered up to the maximum dose of 320 mg once per week and no dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended dose for expansion in patients with follicular lymphoma grade 1-3a was 80 mg and was 160 mg for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cytokine release syndrome and neurological treatment-emergent adverse events were predominantly low grade and did not result in treatment discontinuation. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (36 [25%]), lymphopenia (28 [19%]), hypophosphataemia (27 [19%]), neutropenia (27 [19%]), and thrombocytopenia (20 [14%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 89 (61%) of 145 patients; the most frequent were cytokine release syndrome (41 [28%]), pyrexia (11 [8%]), pneumonia (nine [6%]), and infusion-related reaction (six [4%]). Four deaths were considered related to treatment (gastric perforation in a patient with gastric involvement by lymphoma, lung infection, pneumonia, and tumour-lysis syndrome). Objective response rate was 51% (95% CI 42-59; 72 of 142). In patients with follicular lymphoma who received odronextamab doses of 5 mg or higher, the objective response rate was 91% (95% CI 75-98; 29 of 32) and the complete response rate was 72% (95% CI 53-86; 23 of 32). In patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma without previous CAR T-cell therapy who received doses of 80 mg or higher, the objective response rate was 53% (eight of 15) and all responses were complete responses. In patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had previous CAR T-cell therapy and received doses of 80 mg or higher, the objective response rate was 33% (ten of 30) and complete response rate was 27% (eight of 30). INTERPRETATION: Odronextamab monotherapy showed a manageable safety profile and encouraging preliminary activity, including durable responses in heavily pretreated patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, supporting further clinical investigation in phase 2 and 3 trials. FUNDING: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antineoplastic Agents , Lymphoma, Follicular , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Aged , Antibodies, Bispecific/adverse effects , Antigens, CD20 , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Br J Haematol ; 197(2): 207-211, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170759

ABSTRACT

Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors such as idelalisib have been associated with potentially severe autoimmune toxicity. In the present study, we demonstrate that relapsed refractory patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with idelalisib rituximab on the phase III registration trial show uniform decrease in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and increase in CD8 T cells with treatment. Patients who do not develop toxicity show enrichment for T cells expressing multiple chemokine receptors, while those who do develop toxicity have an activated CD8 T cell population with T helper 17 cell differentiation at baseline, which then increases, leading to an increased CD8:Treg ratio that likely triggers autoimmune toxicity.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Cell Differentiation , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors , Purines , Quinazolinones/pharmacology , Quinazolinones/therapeutic use
8.
Mol Oncol ; 16(5): 1153-1170, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861096

ABSTRACT

Most patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) initially respond to targeted therapies, but eventually relapse and develop resistance. Novel treatment strategies are therefore needed to improve patient outcomes. Here, we performed direct drug testing on primary CLL cells and identified synergy between eight different mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors and the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) antagonist venetoclax. Drug sensitivity was independent of immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene variable region (IGVH) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutational status, and CLL cells from idelalisib-resistant patients remained sensitive to the treatment. This suggests that combined MEK/Bcl-2 inhibition may be an option for high-risk CLL. To test whether sensitivity could be detected in other B-cell malignancies, we performed drug testing on cell line models of CLL (n = 4), multiple myeloma (MM; n = 8), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL; n = 7). Like CLL, MM cells were sensitive to the MEK inhibitor trametinib, and synergy was observed with venetoclax. In contrast, MCL cells were unresponsive to MEK inhibition. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the disease-specific drug sensitivities, we performed flow cytometry-based high-throughput profiling of 31 signaling proteins and regulators of apoptosis in the 19 cell lines. We found that high expression of the antiapoptotic proteins myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) or B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) predicted low sensitivity to trametinib + venetoclax. The low sensitivity could be overcome by combined treatment with an Mcl-1 or Bcl-xL inhibitor. Our findings suggest that MEK/Bcl-2 inhibition has therapeutic potential in leukemia and myeloma, and demonstrate that protein expression levels can serve as predictive biomarkers for treatment sensitivities.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Leukemia , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multiple Myeloma , Adult , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism
9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 720704, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858810

ABSTRACT

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors represent an important therapeutic advancement for B cell malignancies. Ibrutinib, the first-in-class BTK inhibitor, is approved by the US FDA to treat patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL; after ≥1 prior therapy); and by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for adult patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL and patients with CLL. Ibrutinib treatment can be limited by adverse events (AEs) including atrial fibrillation, arthralgias, rash, diarrhea, and bleeding events, leading to drug discontinuation in 4%-26% of patients. Acalabrutinib, a second-generation BTK inhibitor, is approved by the FDA to treat adult patients with CLL/SLL or MCL (relapsed after 1 prior therapy); and by the EMA to treat adult patients with CLL or R/R MCL. The most common AE associated with acalabrutinib is headache of limited duration, which occurs in 22%-51% of patients, and is mainly grade 1-2 in severity, with only 1% of patients experiencing grade ≥3 headache. Furthermore, acalabrutinib is associated with a low incidence of atrial fibrillation. Zanubrutinib, a selective next-generation covalent BTK inhibitor, is approved by the FDA to treat adult patients with MCL who have received ≥1 prior therapy, and is under investigation for the treatment of patients with CLL. In the phase 3 SEQUOIA trial in patients with CLL, the most common grade ≥3 AEs were neutropenia/neutrophil count decreased and infections. This review provides an overview of BTK inhibitor-related AEs in patients with CLL, and strategies for their management.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(4): 603-608, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789482

ABSTRACT

The management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has undergone unprecedented changes over the last decade. Modern targeted therapies are incorporated into clinical practice. Unfortunately, patients have begun to develop resistance or intolerance to multiple classes. Symptomatic patients previously treated with a BTK inhibitor (BTKi) and venetoclax represent a new and rapidly growing unmet need in CLL. Here, we define unmet needs in a modern treatment context. We also critically review the literature for PI3K inhibitors and chemoimmunotherapy and lack of data to support their utility following BTKis and venetoclax. Finally, we suggest opportunities to ensure the continued innovation for patients with CLL.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Humans , Immunotherapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Blood ; 139(5): 686-689, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788401

ABSTRACT

Richter syndrome (RS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically chemoresistant, with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that the oral Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax could sensitize RS to chemoimmunotherapy and improve outcomes. We conducted a single-arm, investigator-sponsored, phase 2 trial of venetoclax plus dose-adjusted rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (VR-EPOCH) to determine the rate of complete response (CR). Patients received R-EPOCH for 1 cycle, then after count recovery, accelerated daily venetoclax ramp-up to 400 mg, then VR-EPOCH for up to 5 more 21-day cycles. Responders received venetoclax maintenance or cellular therapy off-study. Twenty-six patients were treated, and 13 of 26 (50%) achieved CR, with 11 achieving undetectable bone marrow minimal residual disease for CLL. Three additional patients achieved partial response (overall response rate, 62%). Median progression-free survival was 10.1 months, and median overall survival was 19.6 months. Hematologic toxicity included grade ≥3 neutropenia (65%) and thrombocytopenia (50%), with febrile neutropenia in 38%. No patients experienced tumor lysis syndrome with daily venetoclax ramp-up. VR-EPOCH is active in RS, with deeper, more durable responses than historical regimens. Toxicities from intensive chemoimmunotherapy and venetoclax were observed. Our data suggest that studies comparing venetoclax with chemoimmunotherapy to chemoimmunotherapy alone are warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03054896.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/administration & dosage , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/administration & dosage , Etoposide/adverse effects , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/adverse effects , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Progression-Free Survival , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Vincristine/administration & dosage , Vincristine/adverse effects , Vincristine/therapeutic use
13.
Leukemia ; 36(3): 723-732, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743191

ABSTRACT

Several PI3Kδ inhibitors are approved for the therapy of B cell malignancies, but their clinical use has been limited by unpredictable autoimmune toxicity. We have recently reported promising efficacy results in treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with combination therapy with the PI3Kδγ inhibitor duvelisib and fludarabine cyclophosphamide rituximab (FCR) chemoimmunotherapy, but approximately one-third of patients develop autoimmune toxicity. We show here that duvelisib FCR treatment in an upfront setting modulates both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Decreases in naive and central memory CD4 T cells and naive CD8 T cells occur with treatment, while activated CD8 T cells, granzyme positive Tregs, and Th17 CD4 and CD8 T cells all increase with treatment, particularly in patients with toxicity. Cytokines associated with Th17 activation (IL-17A and IL-21) are also relatively elevated in patients with toxicity. The only CLL feature associated with toxicity was increased priming for apoptosis at baseline, with a significant decrease during the first week of duvelisib. We conclude that an increase in activated CD8 T cells with activation of Th17 T cells, in the context of lower baseline Tregs and greater CLL resistance to duvelisib, is associated with duvelisib-related autoimmune toxicity.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity/drug effects , Isoquinolines/adverse effects , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Purines/adverse effects , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/immunology , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Middle Aged , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vidarabine/adverse effects , Vidarabine/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine/therapeutic use
14.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(12): e912-e921, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who progress to Richter transformation (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma morphology) have few therapeutic options. We analysed data from the Richter transformation cohort of a larger, ongoing, phase 1-2, single-arm study evaluating the safety and activity of the selective, irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor acalabrutinib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma. METHODS: For this open-label, single-arm, phase 1-2 study, patients aged 18 years or older with biopsy-proven treatment-naive or previously treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Richter transformation) or prolymphocytic leukaemia transformation (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2) were assigned to receive oral acalabrutinib 200 mg twice daily as monotherapy until disease progression or toxicity. Patients were enrolled across seven centres from four countries. Safety and pharmacokinetics were assessed as primary endpoints; secondary endpoints were overall response rate, duration of response, and progression-free survival. Safety was assessed in the all-treated population (patients who received ≥1 dose), and activity was assessed in the all-treated population (for progression-free survival) and efficacy-evaluable population (for response rate; patients in the all-treated population with ≥1 response assessment after the first dose). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02029443). FINDINGS: Between Sept 2, 2014, and April 25, 2016, 25 patients with Richter transformation were enrolled; 12 (48%) were male and 23 (92%) were White. As of data cutoff (March 1, 2021), two (8%) of 25 patients remained on acalabrutinib. The median time on study was 2·6 months (IQR 1·8-8·4). The most common adverse events (all grades) were diarrhoea (12 [48%] of 25 patients), headache (11 [44%]), and anaemia (eight [32%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (seven [28%] of 25) and anaemia (five [20%]). The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was disease progression (17 [68%] of 25 patients). 11 (44%) deaths were reported within 30 days of the last acalabrutinib dose; none was considered treatment-related. Acalabrutinib was rapidly absorbed and eliminated, with similar day 1 and day 8 exposures. The overall response rate was 40·0% (95% CI 21·1-61·3), with two (8%) of 25 patients having a complete response and eight (32%) having a partial response; the median duration of response was 6·2 months (95% CI 0·3-14·8). Median progression-free survival in the overall cohort was 3·2 months (95% CI 1·8-4·0). INTERPRETATION: Acalabrutinib appears to be generally well tolerated, although progression-free survival was relatively poor in this cohort of patients with Richter transformation. On the basis of these findings, the use of acalabrutinib monotherapy in this setting is limited; however, further assessment of acalabrutinib as part of combination-based regimens for patients with Richter transformation is warranted. FUNDING: Acerta Pharma, a member of the AstraZeneca Group.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pyrazines , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cancer Res ; 81(24): 6117-6130, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686499

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by disordered DNA methylation, suggesting these epigenetic changes might play a critical role in disease onset and progression. The methyltransferase DNMT3A is a key regulator of DNA methylation. Although DNMT3A somatic mutations in CLL are rare, we found that low DNMT3A expression is associated with more aggressive disease. A conditional knockout mouse model showed that homozygous depletion of Dnmt3a from B cells results in the development of CLL with 100% penetrance at a median age of onset of 5.3 months, and heterozygous Dnmt3a depletion yields a disease penetrance of 89% with a median onset at 18.5 months, confirming its role as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. B1a cells were confirmed as the cell of origin of disease in this model, and Dnmt3a depletion resulted in focal hypomethylation and activation of Notch and Myc signaling. Amplification of chromosome 15 containing the Myc gene was detected in all CLL mice tested, and infiltration of high-Myc-expressing CLL cells in the spleen was observed. Notably, hyperactivation of Notch and Myc signaling was exclusively observed in the Dnmt3a CLL mice, but not in three other CLL mouse models tested (Sf3b1-Atm, Ikzf3, and MDR), and Dnmt3a-depleted CLL were sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition of Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these findings, human CLL samples with lower DNMT3A expression were more sensitive to Notch inhibition than those with higher DNMT3A expression. Altogether, these results suggest that Dnmt3a depletion induces CLL that is highly dependent on activation of Notch and Myc signaling. SIGNIFICANCE: Loss of DNMT3A expression is a driving event in CLL and is associated with aggressive disease, activation of Notch and Myc signaling, and enhanced sensitivity to Notch inhibition.


Subject(s)
/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Receptors, Notch/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Daptomycin/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, Knockout , Mice, SCID , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Notch/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Notch/genetics , Survival Rate , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
16.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 28(1): 32.e1-32.e10, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670169

ABSTRACT

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard of care for patients with chemosensitive, relapsed/refractory (R/R) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Whereas the clinical benefit of ASCT has traditionally been attributed solely to cytoreduction from intensive chemotherapy, ASCT has important immunogenic effects that may contribute to its antitumor efficacy and could provide a favorable immune environment for post-ASCT immune-based maintenance treatments. We previously reported clinical results of a phase II trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02362997) testing 8 doses of pembrolizumab maintenance therapy after ASCT for patients with R/R cHL or DLBCL. To clarify the impact of pembrolizumab on immune reconstitution, we compared the kinetics of peripheral blood immune cell recovery after ASCT for trial patients receiving pembrolizumab maintenance to those of a contemporaneous control cohort of similar patients undergoing ASCT without pembrolizumab maintenance. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of post-ASCT pembrolizumab maintenance therapy on immune reconstitution for patients with R/R DLBCL and cHL and to identify candidate biomarkers of efficacy and immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cell samples were prospectively collected at 1 to 18 months after ASCT and analyzed by flow cytometry using a panel of fluorophore-conjugated monoclonal antibodies to identify B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and various dendritic cell (DC) and T cell subsets. A median of 5 (range, 1 to 8) post-ASCT PB samples were collected from 144 patients (59 in the pembrolizumab group and 85 in the control group). Clinical characteristics of the 2 cohorts were similar. Compared with cHL patients, DLBCL patients (all of whom received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy before ASCT) had delayed CD19+ cell reconstitution that persisted for at least 18 months after ASCT. No other differences in immune reconstitution based on lymphoma subtype were observed. Post-ASCT pembrolizumab maintenance therapy was associated with an elevation in circulating DCs (driven by higher levels of plasmacytoid and immature DCs) that persisted for the duration of pembrolizumab treatment, along with a significant reduction in PD-1+ T cells that persisted for 6 to 12 months after completion of pembrolizumab therapy. Despite the key role of T cells in mediating the effects of PD-1 blockade, pembrolizumab maintenance did not affect recovery of any T cell subsets. In an exploratory analysis, a higher baseline CD4+ terminal effector memory cell count (defined as CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD62L-) was associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS), but only among patients who received pembrolizumab maintenance (P = .003). As continuous variables, lower absolute levels of NK cells (P = .009), PD-1+ CD4+ T cells (P = .005), and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells (P = .005) before pembrolizumab initiation were each associated with a higher risk of grade 2+ irAEs. Our findings indicate that post-ACST pembrolizumab maintenance therapy is associated with a persistent elevation of circulating DCs, but its impact on the reconstitution of other immune cells in peripheral blood appears limited. Our study suggests that early features of post-ASCT immune reconstitution could be associated with PFS and the risk of irAE and warrant additional investigation. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hodgkin Disease , Immune Reconstitution , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Hodgkin Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Transplantation, Autologous
17.
Haematologica ; 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587719

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular (CV) toxicities of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib may limit use of this effective therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Acalabrutinib is a second-generation BTK inhibitor with greater BTK selectivity. This analysis characterizes pooled CV adverse events (AEs) data in patients with CLL who received acalabrutinib monotherapy in clinical trials (NCT02029443; NCT02475681; NCT02970318; NCT02337829). Acalabrutinib was given orally at total daily doses of 100-400 mg, later switched to 100 mg twice daily, and continued until disease progression or toxicity. Data from 762 patients (median age: 67 years [range, 32-89]; median follow-up: 25.9 months [range, 0-58.5]) were analyzed. Cardiac AEs of any grade were reported in 129 patients (17%; grade ≥3, n=37 [5%]) and led to treatment discontinuation in 7 patients (1%). The most common any-grade cardiac AEs were atrial fibrillation/flutter (5%), palpitations (3%), and tachycardia (2%). Overall, 91% of patients with cardiac AEs had CV risk factors before acalabrutinib treatment. Among 38 patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter events, 7 (18%) had prior history of arrhythmia or atrial fibrillation/flutter. Hypertension AEs were reported in 67 patients (9%), 43 (64%) of whom had a preexisting history of hypertension; no patients discontinued treatment due to hypertension. No sudden cardiac deaths were reported. Overall, these data demonstrate a low incidence of new-onset cardiac AEs with acalabrutinib in patients with CLL. Findings from the head-to-head, randomized trial of ibrutinib and acalabrutinib in patients with high-risk CLL (NCT02477696) will prospectively assess differences in CV toxicity between the two agents.

18.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1391-1402, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both continuous therapy with acalabrutinib and fixed-duration therapy with venetoclax-obinutuzumab are effective for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We hypothesised that frontline time-limited, minimal residual disease (MRD)-guided triplet therapy with acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab would induce deep (ie, more patients with undetectable MRD) and durable remissions. METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm, investigator-sponsored, phase 2 study, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma were recruited from two academic hospitals in Boston, MA, USA. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and were treatment naive. Patients were treated in 28 day cycles. Acalabrutinib monotherapy was given orally at 100 mg twice daily for cycle 1, then combined for six cycles with intravenous obinutuzumab (100 mg on cycle 2 day 1, 900 mg on day 2, 1000 mg on day 8, and 1000 mg on day 15 and on day 1 of cycles 3-7); and from the beginning of cycle 4, oral venetoclax was dosed daily using an accelerated ramp-up from 20 mg on day 1 to 400 mg by day 22 and continued at this dose thereafter. Patients continued on acalabrutinib 100 mg twice daily and venetoclax 400 mg once daily until day 1 of cycle 16 or day 1 of cycle 25. If the patient had undetectable MRD in the bone marrow they were given the option to discontinue therapy at the start of cycle 16 (if also in complete remission) or at the start of cycle 25 (if at least in partial remission). The primary endpoint was complete remission with undetectable MRD in the bone marrow (defined as <1 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell per 10 000 leucocytes as measured by four-colour flow cytometry), at cycle 16 day 1. Safety and activity endpoints were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03580928, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 2, 2018, and May 23, 2019, 37 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled and all received at least one dose of any study drug. The median age of patients was 63 years (IQR 57-70), and ten (27%) were female and 27 (73%) were male. Median follow-up was 27·6 months (IQR 25·1-28·2). At cycle 16 day 1, 14 (38% [95% CI 22-55]) of 37 participants had a complete remission with undetectable MRD in the bone marrow. The most common grade 3 or 4 haematological adverse event was neutropenia (16 [43%] of 37 patients). The most common grade 3-4 non-haematological adverse events were hyperglycaemia (three [8%]) and hypophosphataemia (three [8%]). Serious adverse events occurred in nine (24%) patients; the most common was neutropenia in three (8%) patients. There have been no deaths on study. INTERPRETATION: Acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab is a highly active and well tolerated frontline therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Although the primary endpoint of this study was not met, the high proportion of patients who had undetectable MRD in the bone marrow supports further investigation of this regimen, which is being tested against acalabrutinib-venetoclax and chemoimmunotherapy in an ongoing phase 3 study (NCT03836261). FUNDING: AstraZeneca and a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Collaborative Award.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Benzamides/administration & dosage , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/administration & dosage , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Benzamides/adverse effects , Boston , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm, Residual , Progression-Free Survival , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Remission Induction , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Time Factors
19.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 20(10): 798, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471263
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL