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1.
The Lancet Healthy Longevity ; 2(12):e811-e819, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1541059

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Understanding the duration of protection and risk of reinfection after natural infection is crucial to planning COVID-19 vaccination for at-risk groups, including care home residents, particularly with the emergence of more transmissible variants. We report on the duration, neutralising activity, and protection against the alpha variant of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection in care home residents and staff infected more than 6 months previously. Methods We did this prospective observational cohort surveillance in 13 care homes in Greater London, England. All staff and residents were included. Staff and residents had regular nose and throat screening for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR according to national guidelines, with ad hoc testing of symptomatic individuals. From January, 2021, antigen lateral flow devices were also used, but positive tests still required RT-PCR confirmation. Staff members took the swab samples for themselves and the residents. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive primary infection or reinfection in previously infected individuals, as determined by previous serological testing and screening or diagnostic RT-PCR results. Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate protective effectiveness of previous exposure. SARS-CoV-2 spike, nucleoprotein, and neutralising antibodies were assessed at multiple timepoints as part of the longitudinal follow-up. Findings Between April 10 and Aug 3, 2020, we recruited and tested 1625 individuals (933 staff and 692 residents). 248 participants were lost to follow-up (123 staff and 125 residents) and 1377 participants were included in the follow-up period to Jan 31, 2021 (810 staff and 567 residents). There were 23 reinfections (ten confirmed, eight probable, five possible) in 656 previously infected individuals (366 staff and 290 residents), compared with 165 primary infections in 721 susceptible individuals (444 staff and 277 residents). Those with confirmed reinfections had no or low neutralising antibody concentration before reinfection, with boosting of titres after reinfection. Kinetics of binding and neutralising antibodies were similar in older residents and younger staff. Interpretation SARS-CoV-2 reinfections were rare in older residents and younger staff. Protection from SARS-CoV-2 was sustained for longer than 9 months, including against the alpha variant. Reinfection was associated with no or low neutralising antibody before reinfection, but significant boosting occurred on reinfection. Funding Public Health England.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292973

ABSTRACT

Importance: There are limited data on immune responses after COVID-19 vaccine boosters in individuals receiving primary immunisation with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or AZD1222 (AstraZeneca) Objective: To assess SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses before and after booster vaccination with BNT162b2 in adults receiving two BNT162b2 or AZD1222 vaccine doses at least 6 months previously, as part of the United Kingdom national immunisation schedule Design: Prospective, cohort study Setting: London, England Participants: 750 immunocompetent adults aged ≥50 years Interventions: A single dose of BNT162b2 administered at least six months after primary immunisation with two doses of BNT162b2 given <30 days apart (BNT162b2-control) or ≥30 days apart (BNT162b2-extended) compared to AZD1222 given ≥30 days apart (AZD1222-extended) Main Outcome and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody geometric mean titres (GMTs) before and 2-4 weeks after booster Results: Of 750 participants, 626 provided serum samples for up to 38 weeks after their second vaccine dose. Antibody GMTs peaked at 2-4 weeks after the second dose, before declining by 68% at 36-38 weeks after dose 2 for BNT162b2-control participants, 85% at 24-29 weeks for BNT162b2-extended participants and 78% at 24-29 weeks for AZD1222-extended participants. Antibody GMTs was highest in BNT162b2-extended participants (942 [95%CI, 797-1113]) than AZD1222-extended (183 [124-268]) participants at 24-29 weeks or BNT162b2-control participants at 36-38 weeks (208;95%CI, 150-289). At 2-4 weeks after booster, GMTs were significantly higher than after primary vaccination in all three groups: 18,104 (95%CI, 13,911-23,560;n=47) in BNT162b2-control (76.3-fold), 13,980 (11,902-16,421;n=118) in BNT162b2-extended (15.9-fold) and 10,799 (8,510-13,704;n=43) in AZD1222-extended (57.2-fold) participants. BNT162b2-control participants (median:262 days) had a longer interval between primary and booster doses than BNT162b2-extended or AZD1222-extended (both median:186 days) participants. Conclusions and Relevance: We observed rapid serological responses to boosting with BNT162b2, irrespective of vaccine type or schedule used for primary immunisation, with higher post-booster responses with longer interval between primary immunisation and boosting. Boosters will not only provide additional protection for those at highest risk of severe COVID-19 but also prevent infection and, therefore, interrupt transmission, thereby reducing infections rates in the population. Ongoing surveillance will be important for monitoring the duration of protection after the booster.

3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292906

ABSTRACT

We present a comprehensive analysis of antibody and cellular responses in children aged 12-16 years who received COVID-19 vaccination with ChAdOx1 (n=6) or mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2, n=9) using a 12-week extended-interval schedule. mRNA vaccination of seropositive children induces high antibody levels, with one dose, but a second dose is required in infection-naïve children. Following a second ChAdOx1 dose, antibody titres were higher than natural infection, but lower than mRNA vaccination. Vaccination induced live virus neutralising antibodies against Alpha, Beta and Delta variants, however, a second dose is required in infection-naïve children. We found higher T-cell responses following mRNA vaccination than ChAdOx1. Phenotyping of responses showed predominantly early effector-memory CD4 T cell populations, with a type-1 cytotoxic cytokine signature, with IL-10. These data demonstrate mRNA vaccination induces a co-ordinated superior antibody and robust cellular responses in children. Seronegative children require a prime-boost regime for optimal protection.

4.
Audiol Neurootol ; : 1-8, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528607

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the influence of postponing the first post-activation follow-up due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the aided sound field detection thresholds and speech recognition of cochlear implant (CI) users. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed at a tertiary referral center. Two groups of adult CI recipients were evaluated: (1) patients whose first post-activation follow-up was postponed due to COVID-19 closures (postponed group; n = 10) and (2) a control group that attended recommended post-activation follow-ups prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (control group; n = 18). For both groups, electric thresholds were estimated at initial activation based on comfort levels and were measured behaviorally at subsequent post-activation follow-ups. For the control group, behavioral thresholds were measured at the 1-month follow-up. For the postponed group, behavioral thresholds were not measured until 3 months post-activation since the 1-month follow-up was postponed. The aided pure-tone average (PTA) and word recognition results were compared between groups at the 3-month follow-up and at an interim visit 2-9 weeks later. RESULTS: At the 3-month follow-up, the postponed group had significantly poorer word recognition (23 vs. 42%, p = 0.027) and aided PTA (42 vs. 37 dB HL, p = 0.041) than the control group. No significant differences were observed between 3-month data from the control group and interim data from the postponed group. CONCLUSIONS: The postponed follow-up after CI activation was associated with poorer outcomes, both in terms of speech recognition and aided audibility. However, these detrimental effects were reversed following provision of an individualized map, with behaviorally measured electric threshold and comfort levels. While adult CI recipients demonstrate an improvement in speech recognition with estimated electric thresholds, the present results suggest that behavioral mapping within the initial weeks of device use may support optimal outcomes.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab533, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528174

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has potentially impacted outpatient antibiotic prescribing. Investigating this impact may identify stewardship opportunities in the ongoing COVID-19 period and beyond. Methods: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic prescriptions/patient visits in Ontario, Canada, between January 2017 and December 2020 to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population-level antibiotic prescribing by prescriber specialty, patient demographics, and conditions. Results: In the evaluated COVID-19 period (March-December 2020), there was a 31.2% (95% CI, 27.0% to 35.1%) relative reduction in total antibiotic prescriptions. Total outpatient antibiotic prescriptions decreased during the COVID-19 period by 37.1% (95% CI, 32.5% to 41.3%) among family physicians, 30.7% (95% CI, 25.8% to 35.2%) among subspecialist physicians, 12.1% (95% CI, 4.4% to 19.2%) among dentists, and 25.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 29.8%) among other prescribers. Antibiotics indicated for respiratory infections decreased by 43.7% (95% CI, 38.4% to 48.6%). Total patient visits and visits for respiratory infections decreased by 10.7% (95% CI, 5.4% to 15.6%) and 49.9% (95% CI, 43.1% to 55.9%). Total antibiotic prescriptions/1000 visits decreased by 27.5% (95% CI, 21.5% to 33.0%), while antibiotics indicated for respiratory infections/1000 visits with respiratory infections only decreased by 6.8% (95% CI, 2.7% to 10.8%). Conclusions: The reduction in outpatient antibiotic prescribing during the COVID-19 pandemic was driven by less antibiotic prescribing for respiratory indications and largely explained by decreased visits for respiratory infections.

6.
J Infect ; 83(5): 573-580, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence and seroconversion in students and staff when secondary schools reopened in March 2021. METHODS: We initiated SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in 18 secondary schools across six regions in September 2020. Participants provided nasal swabs for RT-PCR and blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the beginning (September 2020) and end (December 2020) of the autumn term and at the start of the spring term (March 2021). FINDINGS: In March 2021, 1895 participants (1100 students:795 staff) were tested; 5.6% (61/1094) students and 4.4% (35/792) staff had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from December 2020-March 2021. Nucleoprotein-antibody seroprevalence was 36.3% (370/1018) in students and 31.9% (245/769) in staff, while spike-antibody prevalence was 39.5% (402/1018) and 59.8% (459/769), respectively, similar to regional community seroprevalence. Between December 2020 and March 2021, 14.8% (97/656; 95%CI: 12.2-17.7) students and 10.0% (59/590; 95%CI: 7.7-12.7) staff seroconverted. Weekly seroconversion rates were similar from September to December 2020 (8.0/1000) and from December 2020 to March 2021 (7.9/1000; students: 9.3/1,000; staff: 6.3/1,000). INTERPRETATION: By March 2021, a third of secondary school students and staff had evidence of prior infection based on N-antibody seropositivity, and an additional third of staff had evidence of vaccine-induced immunity based on S-antibody seropositivity.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1840-1848, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Within-household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been identified as one of the main sources of spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after lockdown restrictions and self-isolation guidelines are implemented. Secondary attack rates among household contacts are estimated to be 5-10 times higher than among non-household contacts, but it is unclear which individuals are more prone to transmit infection within their households. METHODS: Using address matching, a cohort was assembled of all individuals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 residing in private households in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive analyses were performed to compare characteristics of cases in households that experienced secondary transmission versus those that did not. Logistic regression models were fit to determine index case characteristics and neighborhood characteristics associated with transmission. RESULTS: Between January and July 2020, there were 26 714 individuals with COVID-19 residing in 21 226 households. Longer testing delays (≥5 vs 0 days; odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.53-3.60) and male gender (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.38) were associated with greater odds of household secondary transmission, while being a healthcare worker (OR, .56; 95% CI, .50-.62) was associated with lower odds of transmission. Neighborhoods with larger average family size and a higher proportion of households with multiple persons per room were also associated with greater odds of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for individuals to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection as soon as symptoms appear, and to isolate away from household contacts; this is particularly important in neighborhoods with large family sizes and/or crowded households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology
8.
Chest ; 160(2): 652-670, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491830

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating medical and economic consequences globally. The severity of COVID-19 is related, in a large measure, to the extent of pulmonary involvement. The role of chest CT imaging in the management of patients with COVID-19 has evolved since the onset of the pandemic. Specifically, the description of CT scan findings, use of chest CT imaging in various acute and subacute settings, and its usefulness in predicting chronic disease have been defined better. We performed a review of published data on CT scans in patients with COVID-19. A summary of the range of imaging findings, from typical to less common abnormalities, is provided. Familiarity with these findings may facilitate the diagnosis and management of this disease. A comparison of sensitivity and specificity of chest CT imaging with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing highlights the potential role of CT imaging in difficult-to-diagnose cases of COVID-19. The usefulness of CT imaging to assess prognosis, to guide management, and to identify acute pulmonary complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is highlighted. Beyond the acute stage, it is important for clinicians to recognize pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities, progressive fibrotic lung disease, and vascular changes that may be responsible for persistent respiratory symptoms. A large collection of multi-institutional images were included to elucidate the CT scan findings described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468709

ABSTRACT

Age is the major risk factor for mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection and older people have received priority consideration for COVID-19 vaccination. However, vaccine responses are often suboptimal in this age group and few people over the age of 80 years were included in vaccine registration trials. We determined the serological and cellular response to spike protein in 100 people aged 80-96 years at 2 weeks after the second vaccination with the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Antibody responses were seen in every donor with high titers in 98%. Spike-specific cellular immune responses were detectable in only 63% and correlated with humoral response. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection substantially increased antibody responses after one vaccine and antibody and cellular responses remained 28-fold and 3-fold higher, respectively, after dual vaccination. Post-vaccine sera mediated strong neutralization of live Victoria infection and although neutralization titers were reduced 14-fold against the P.1 variant first discovered in Brazil they remained largely effective. These data demonstrate that the mRNA vaccine platform delivers strong humoral immunity in people up to 96 years of age and retains broad efficacy against the P.1 variant of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
10.
Int J Sports Phys Ther ; 16(5): 1345-1354, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464182

ABSTRACT

Background: Trunk stability is a risk factor commonly associated with lower extremity injuries, particularly in females. Performance on trunk stability tasks, such as the Trunk Stability Push Up (TSPU), is less than optimal in females. Current corrective programs include few females, and clinically, improvements for females have been minimal. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel trunk stability intervention program in improving TSPU performance in a cohort of active female participants. It was hypothesized that ≥60% of participants would improve their TSPU scores to ≥2 via Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) criteria following a novel six-week intervention program. Study Design: Pilot Cohort Study. Methods: Participants were screened for pain with lumbar and shoulder clearing tests and hypermobility was assessed using Beighton scores. Additional testing included a breathing screen, the FMS™, Y-Balance Test-Lower Quarter and Y-Balance Test-Upper Quarter. Participants who scored a 1 on the TSPU received a home exercise program instructed by student physical therapists. Exercises focused on improving awareness of lumbar spine position and thoracic spine mobility. Participants returned for follow-ups after two and four weeks for instruction in exercise progression, which increased postural demand on the lumbar spine and upper extremities, and utilized closed-chain, multiplanar stability strategies. Results: Nine of 20 participants (45%) scored ≥2 on the TSPU at posttest. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, only 12 participants were able to complete all posttest outcome measures. No significant differences were noted in the remaining outcome measures. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that a multiplanar exercise approach, combining anti-extension and anti-rotation training, was beneficial for inducing trunk stability improvements in some active females. Level of Evidence: 2b.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101150, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446584

ABSTRACT

Background: Prospective, longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 sero-surveillance in schools across England was initiated after the first national lockdown, allowing comparison of child and adult antibody responses over time. Methods: Prospective active serological surveillance in 46 primary schools in England tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during June, July and December 2020. Samples were tested for nucleocapsid (N) and receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies, to estimate antibody persistence at least 6 months after infection, and for the correlation of N, RBD and live virus neutralising activity. Findings: In June 2020, 1,344 staff and 835 students were tested. Overall, 11.5% (95%CI: 9.4-13.9) and 11.3% (95%CI: 9.2-13.6; p = 0.88) of students had nucleoprotein and RBD antibodies, compared to 15.6% (95%CI: 13.7-17.6) and 15.3% (95%CI: 13.4-17.3; p = 0.83) of staff. Live virus neutralising activity was detected in 79.8% (n = 71/89) of nucleocapsid and 85.5% (71/83) of RBD antibody positive children. RBD antibodies correlated more strongly with neutralising antibodies (rs=0.7527; p<0.0001) than nucleocapsid antibodies (rs=0.3698; p<0.0001). A median of 24.4 weeks later, 58.2% (107/184) participants had nucleocapsid antibody seroreversion, compared to 20.9% (33/158) for RBD (p<0.001). Similar seroreversion rates were observed between staff and students for nucleocapsid (p = 0.26) and RBD-antibodies (p = 0.43). Nucleocapsid and RBD antibody quantitative results were significantly lower in staff compared to students (p = 0.028 and <0.0001 respectively) at baseline, but not at 24 weeks (p = 0.16 and p = 0.37, respectively). Interpretation: The immune response in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection was robust and sustained (>6 months) but further work is required to understand the extent to which this protects against reinfection.

12.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 2(9): e554-e560, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433992

ABSTRACT

Background: In several countries, extended interval COVID-19 vaccination regimens are now used to accelerate population coverage, but the relative immunogenicity of different vaccines in older people remains uncertain. In this study we aimed to assess the antibody and cellular responses of older people after a single dose of either the BNT162b2 vaccine (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford University-AstraZeneca). Methods: Participants aged 80 years or older, who did not live in a residential or care home or require assisted living, and had received a single dose of either the BNT162b2 vaccine or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were eligible to participate. Participants were recruited through local primary care networks in the West Midlands, UK. Blood samples and dried blood spots were taken 5-6 weeks after vaccination to assess adaptive immune responses using Elecsys electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and cellular responses by ELISpot. Primary endpoints were percentage response and quantification of adaptive immunity. Findings: Between Dec 29, 2020, and Feb 28, 2021, 165 participants were recruited and included in the analysis. 76 participants had received BNT162b2 (median age 84 years, IQR 82-89; range 80-98) and 89 had received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (median age 84 years, 81-87; 80-99). Antibody responses against the spike protein were detectable in 69 (93%) of 74 BNT162b2 vaccine recipients and 77 (87%) of 89 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine recipients. Median antibody titres were of 19·3 U/mL (7·4-79·4) in the BNT162b2 vaccine recipients and 19·6 U/mL (6·1-60·0) in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine recipients (p=0·41). Spike protein-specific T-cell responses were observed in nine (12%) of 73 BNT162b2 vaccine recipients and 27 (31%) of 88 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine recipients, and median responses were three-times higher in ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine recipients (24 spots per 1 × 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) than BNT162b2 vaccine recipients (eight spots per 1 × 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells; p<0·0001). Humoral and cellular immune responses against spike protein were correlated in both cohorts. Evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was seen in eight participants (n=5 BNT162b2 recipients and n=3 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 recipients), and was associated with 691-times and four-times increase in humoral and cellular immune responses across the whole cohort. Interpretation: Single doses of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in older people induces humoral immunity in most participants, and is markedly enhanced by previous infection. Cellular responses were weaker, but showed enhancement after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at the 5-6 week timepoint. Funding: Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and National Core Studies.

15.
Nat Immunol ; 22(5): 620-626, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387432

ABSTRACT

The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical in controlling disease, but there is concern that waning immunity may predispose to reinfection. We analyzed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response in 100 donors at 6 months following infection. T cell responses were present by ELISPOT and/or intracellular cytokine staining analysis in all donors and characterized by predominant CD4+ T cell responses with strong interleukin (IL)-2 cytokine expression. Median T cell responses were 50% higher in donors who had experienced a symptomatic infection, indicating that the severity of primary infection establishes a 'set point' for cellular immunity. T cell responses to spike and nucleoprotein/membrane proteins were correlated with peak antibody levels. Furthermore, higher levels of nucleoprotein-specific T cells were associated with preservation of nucleoprotein-specific antibody level although no such correlation was observed in relation to spike-specific responses. In conclusion, our data are reassuring that functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are retained at 6 months following infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interleukin-2/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(10): 2003-2008.e2, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has had devastating effects on long-term care homes across much of the world, and especially within Canada, with more than 50% of the mortality from COVID-19 in 2020 in these homes. Understanding the way in which the virus spreads within these homes is critical to preventing further outbreaks. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Long-term care home residents and staff in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of a large long-term care home COVID-19 outbreak in Ontario, Canada, using electronic medical records, public health records, staff assignments, and resident room locations to spatially map the outbreak through the facility. RESULTS: By analyzing the outbreak longitudinally, we were able to draw 3 important conclusions: (1) 84.5% had typical COVID-19 symptoms and only 15.5% of residents had asymptomatic infection; (2) there was a high attack rate of 85.8%, which appeared to be explained by a high degree of interconnectedness within the home exacerbated by staffing shortages; and (3) clustering of infections within multibedded rooms was common. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Low rates of asymptomatic infection suggest that symptom-based screening in residents remains very important for detecting outbreaks, a high degree of interconnectedness explains the high attack rate, and there is a need for improved guidance for homes with multibedded rooms on optimizing resident room movement to mitigate spread of COVID-19 in long-term care homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Nursing Homes , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
CMAJ ; 193(33): E1300-E1302, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372024
19.
BMJ ; 374: n1943, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes (hospital admission or death). DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada between 14 December 2020 and 19 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 324 033 community dwelling people aged ≥16 years who had symptoms of covid-19 and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hospital admissions and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for personal and clinical characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine receipt to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. RESULTS: Of 324 033 people with symptoms, 53 270 (16.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 272 (6.6%) received at least one dose of vaccine. Among participants who tested positive, 2479 (4.7%) were admitted to hospital or died. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection observed ≥14 days after one dose was 60% (95% confidence interval 57% to 64%), increasing from 48% (41% to 54%) at 14-20 days after one dose to 71% (63% to 78%) at 35-41 days. Vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 91% (89% to 93%). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission or death observed ≥14 days after one dose was 70% (60% to 77%), increasing from 62% (44% to 75%) at 14-20 days to 91% (73% to 97%) at ≥35 days, whereas vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 98% (88% to 100%). For adults aged ≥70 years, vaccine effectiveness estimates were observed to be lower for intervals shortly after one dose but were comparable to those for younger people for all intervals after 28 days. After two doses, high vaccine effectiveness was observed against variants with the E484K mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA covid-19 vaccines were observed to be highly effective against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose was observed to be lower, particularly for older adults shortly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Immun Ageing ; 18(1): 34, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have shown clinical efficacy against Covid-19 infection but there remains uncertainty about the immune responses elicited by different regimens. This is a particularly important question for older people who are at increased clinical risk following infection and in whom immune senescence may limit vaccine responses. The BNT162b2 mRNA and ChAdOx1 adenovirus vaccines were the first two vaccines deployed in the UK programme using an 8-12 week 'extended interval'. OBJECTIVES: We undertook analysis of the spike-specific antibody and cellular immune response in 131 participants aged 80+ years after the second dose of 'extended interval' dual vaccination with either BNT162b2 mRNA (n = 54) or ChAdOx1 (n = 77) adenovirus vaccine. Blood samples were taken 2-3 weeks after second vaccine and were paired with samples taken at 5-weeks after first vaccine which have been reported previously. Antibody responses were measured using the Elecsys® electrochemiluminescence immunoassay assay and cellular responses were assessed by IFN-γ ELISpot. RESULTS: Antibody responses against spike protein became detectable in all donors following dual vaccination with either vaccine. 4 donors had evidence of previous natural infection which is known to boost vaccine responses. Within the 53 infection-naïve donors the median antibody titre was 4030 U/ml (IQR 1892-8530) following BNT162b2 dual vaccination and 1405 (IQR 469.5-2543) in the 74 patients after the ChAdOx1 vaccine (p = < 0.0001). Spike-specific T cell responses were observed in 30% and 49% of mRNA and ChAdOx1 recipients respectively and median responses were 1.4-times higher in ChAdOx1 vaccinees at 14 vs 20 spots/million respectively (p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Dual vaccination with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 induces strong humoral immunity in older people following an extended interval protocol. Antibody responses are 2.9-times higher following the mRNA regimen whilst cellular responses are 1.4-times higher with the adenovirus-based vaccine. Differential patterns of immunogenicity are therefore elicited from the two vaccine platforms. It will be of interest to assess the relative stability of immune responses after these homologous vaccine regimens in order to assess the potential need for vaccine boosting. Furthermore, these findings indicate that heterologous vaccine platforms may offer the opportunity to further optimize vaccine responses.

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