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Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 54(4): 312-322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067910


AIM: To evaluate five illustrative cases and perform a literature review to identify and describe a working approach to adult-onset white matter diseases (WMD). STATE OF THE ART: Inherited WMD are a group of disorders often seen in childhood. In adulthood, progressive WMDs are rare, apart from the common nonspecific causes of hypertension and other cerebrovascular diseases. The pattern of WMDs on neuroimaging can be an important clue to the final diagnosis. Due to the adoption of a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach, WMD is becoming better recognised, in addition to the rapidly evolving field of genomics in this area. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: While paediatric WMDs have a well-defined and literature-based clinical-laboratory approach to diagnosis, adult-onset WMDs remain an important, pathologically diverse, radiographic phenotype, with different and distinct neuropathologies among the various subtypes of WMD. Adult-onset WMDs comprise a wide collection of both acquired and inherited aetiologies. While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neurological complications are emerging, we are as yet unaware of it causing WMD outside of post-anoxic changes. It is important to recognise WMD as a potentially undefined acquired or genetic syndrome, even when extensive full genome testing reveals variants of unknown significance. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: We propose a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach to WMD and continued exploration of acquired and genetic factors. Adult-onset WMD, even given this approach, can be challenging because hypertension is often comorbid. Therefore, we propose that undiagnosed patients with WMD be entered into multicentre National Organisation for Rare Diseases registries to help researchers worldwide make new discoveries that will hopefully translate into future cures.

Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/pathology
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(1): 161-170, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057031


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strained health care systems and personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies globally. We hypothesized that a collaborative robot system could perform health care worker effector tasks inside a simulated intensive care unit (ICU) patient room, which could theoretically reduce both PPE use and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposures. We planned a prospective proof-of-concept feasibility and design pilot study to test 5 discrete medical tasks in a simulated ICU room of a COVID-19 patient using a collaborative robot: push a button on intravenous pole machine when alert occurs for downstream occlusion, adjust ventilator knob, push button on ICU monitor to silence false alerts, increase oxygen flow on wall-mounted flow meter to allow the patient to walk to the bathroom and back (dial-up and dial-down oxygen flow), and push wall-mounted nurse call button. Feasibility was defined as task completion robotically. A training period of 45 minutes to 1 hour was needed to program the system de novo for each task. In less than 30 days, the team completed 5 simple effector task experiments robotically. Selected collaborative robotic effector tasks appear feasible in a simulated ICU room of the COVID-19 patient. Theoretically, this robotic approach could reduce PPE use and staff SARS-CoV-2 exposure. It requires future validation and health care worker learning similar to other ICU device training.