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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms among people living with HIV (PLWH) are not well described. SETTING: Longitudinal survey within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS) of PLWH compared with similar HIV-seronegative (SN) individuals. METHODS: Telephone-administered survey of MWCCS participants at 13 clinical research sites across the United States addressing COVID-19 symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and pandemic impact on social distancing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. Primary data collection occurred during May (wave 1), June-July (wave 2), and August-September, 2020 (wave 3). RESULTS: One-third of MWCCS participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection; 10% was tested ≥2 times. Similar proportions of PLWH and SN participants were tested, but SARS-CoV-2 positivity was higher among PLWH than among SN individuals (9.4% vs 4.8%, P = 0.003). Odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity remained higher among PLWH after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and study site (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 3.2). SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with CD4 cell counts among PLWH. Among SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, 9% had no symptoms, 7% had 1-2 mild symptoms, and 84% had ≥3 symptoms. Most of the (98%) participants reported physical distancing during all survey waves; self-reported ART adherence among PLWH was not adversely affected during the pandemic compared with the previous year (similar adherence in 89% of participants, improved in 9% of participants, and decreased in 2% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar SARS-CoV-2 testing and physical distancing profiles by HIV serostatus among MWCCS participants, PLWH who reported SARS-CoV-2 testing were more likely to have a positive test result. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and why PLWH are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Pharyngitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Cough , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
2.
Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 222(Supplement_1):S52-S62, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) are at risk for accelerated development of physical function impairment and frailty;both associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, and death. Identifying factors associated with physical function impairment and frailty can help target interventions. METHODS: The REPRIEVE trial enrolled participants 40-75 years of age, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/mm3, and with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of those concurrently enrolled in the ancillary study PREPARE at enrollment. RESULTS: Among the 266 participants, the median age was 51 years;81% were male, and 45% were black, and 28% had hypertension. Body mass index (BMI;calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 25 to <30 in 38% and ≥30 in 30%, 33% had a high waist circumference, 89% were physically inactive, 37% (95% confidence interval, 31%, 43%) had physical function impairment (Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤10), and 6% (4%, 9%) were frail and 42% prefrail. In the adjusted analyses, older age, black race, greater BMI, and physical inactivity were associated with physical function impairment;depression and hypertension were associated with frailty or prefrailty. CONCLUSIONS: Physical function impairment was common among middle-aged PWH;greater BMI and physical inactivity are important modifiable factors that may prevent further decline in physical function with aging. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.

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