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Nurs Crit Care ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063883


BACKGROUND: Prone positioning has been widely used to improve oxygenation and reduce ventilator-induced lung injury in patients with severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). One major complication associated with prone positioning is the development of pressure ulcers (PUs). AIM: This study aimed to determine the impact of a prevention care bundle on the incidence of PUs in patients with COVID-19 ARDS undergoing prone positioning in the intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-centre pre and post-test intervention study which adheres to the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI) guidelines. The intervention included a care bundle addressing the following: increasing frequency of head turns, use of an open gel head ring, application of prophylactic dressings to bony prominences, use of a pressure redistribution air mattress, education of staff in the early identification of evolving PUs through regular and rigorous skin inspection and engaging in bedside training sessions with nursing and medical staff. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of PU development. The secondary outcomes of interest were severity of PU development and the anatomical location of the PUs. RESULTS: In the pre-intervention study, 20 patients were included and 80% (n = 16) of these patients developed PUs, comprising 34 ulcers in total. In the post-intervention study, a further 20 patients were included and 60% (n = 12) of these patients developed PUs, comprising 32 ulcers in total. This marks a 25% reduction in the number of patients developing a PU, and a 6% decrease in the total number of PUs observed. Grade II PUs were the most prevalent in both study groups (65%, n = 22; 88%, n = 28, respectively). In the post-intervention study, there was a reduction in the incidence of grade III and deep tissue injuries (pre-intervention 6%, n = 2 grade III, 6% n = 2 deep tissue injuries; post-intervention no grade III ulcers, grade IV ulcers, or deep tissues injuries were recorded). However, there was an increase in the number of unstageable PUs in the post-intervention group with 6% (n = 2) of PUs being classified as unstageable, meanwhile there were no unstageable PUs in the pre-intervention group. This is an important finding to consider as unstageable PUs can indicate deep tissue damage and therefore need to be considered alongside PUs of a more severe grade (grade III, grade IV, and deep tissue injuries). CONCLUSION: The use of a new evidence-based care bundle for the prevention of PUs in the management of patients in the prone position has the potential to reduce the incidence of PU development. Although improvements were observed following alterations to standard practice, further research is needed to validate these findings. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The use of a new, evidence-based care bundle in the management of patients in the prone position has the potential to reduce the incidence of PUs.

Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 233-248.e6, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882364


Background: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a febrile pro-inflammatory cytokinemia with accelerated progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report the results of a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous (IV) plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) for moderate to severe ARDS secondary to COVID-19 (EudraCT 2020-001391-15). Methods: Patients (n = 36) were randomized to receive weekly placebo, weekly AAT (Prolastin, Grifols, S.A.; 120 mg/kg), or AAT once followed by weekly placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration at 1 week. In addition to assessing safety and tolerability, changes in plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and clinical outcomes were assessed as secondary endpoints. Findings: Treatment with IV AAT resulted in decreased inflammation and was safe and well tolerated. The study met its primary endpoint, with decreased circulating IL-6 concentrations at 1 week in the treatment group. This was in contrast to the placebo group, where IL-6 was increased. Similarly, plasma sTNFR1 was substantially decreased in the treatment group while remaining unchanged in patients receiving placebo. IV AAT did not definitively reduce levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, and IL-10. No difference in mortality or ventilator-free days was observed between groups, although a trend toward decreased time on ventilator was observed in AAT-treated patients. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe ARDS, treatment with IV AAT was safe, feasible, and biochemically efficacious. The data support progression to a phase 3 trial and prompt further investigation of AAT as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic. Funding: ECSA-2020-009; Elaine Galwey Research Bursary.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interleukin-10/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Interleukin-8/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy