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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 560-565, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187181

ABSTRACT

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Census region. Cumulative and monthly age-adjusted COVID-19 proportionate hospitalization ratios (aPHRs) were calculated for racial and ethnic minority patients relative to non-Hispanic White patients. Within each of the four U.S. Census regions, the cumulative aPHR was highest for Hispanic or Latino patients (range = 2.7-3.9). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization were largest during May-July 2020; the peak monthly aPHR among Hispanic or Latino patients was >9.0 in the West and Midwest, >6.0 in the South, and >3.0 in the Northeast. The aPHRs declined for most racial and ethnic groups during July-November 2020 but increased for some racial and ethnic groups in some regions during December. Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization by race/ethnicity varied by region and became less pronounced over the course of the pandemic, as COVID-19 hospitalizations increased among non-Hispanic White persons. Identification of specific social determinants of health that contribute to geographic and temporal differences in racial and ethnic disparities at the local level can help guide tailored public health prevention strategies and equitable allocation of resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to address COVID-19-related health disparities and can inform approaches to achieve greater health equity during future public health threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/trends , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Geography , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1164-1168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146202

ABSTRACT

We compared the characteristics of hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients who had coronavirus disease in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We found that risk for hospitalization increased with a patient's age and number of concurrent conditions. We also found a potential association between hospitalization and high hemoglobin A1c levels in persons with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension , Obesity , Patient Care Management , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa596, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological features and outcomes of hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described; however, the temporal progression and medical complications of disease among hospitalized patients require further study. Detailed descriptions of the natural history of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients are paramount to optimize health care resource utilization, and the detection of different clinical phenotypes may allow tailored clinical management strategies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 305 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 8 academic and community hospitals. Patient characteristics included demographics, comorbidities, medication use, medical complications, intensive care utilization, and longitudinal vital sign and laboratory test values. We examined laboratory and vital sign trends by mortality status and length of stay. To identify clinical phenotypes, we calculated Gower's dissimilarity matrix between each patient's clinical characteristics and clustered similar patients using the partitioning around medoids algorithm. RESULTS: One phenotype of 6 identified was characterized by high mortality (49%), older age, male sex, elevated inflammatory markers, high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and shock. Patients with this severe phenotype had significantly elevated peak C-reactive protein creatinine, D-dimer, and white blood cell count and lower minimum lymphocyte count compared with other phenotypes (P < .01, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of hospitalized adults, we identified a severe phenotype of COVID-19 based on the characteristics of its clinical course and poor prognosis. These findings need to be validated in other cohorts, as improved understanding of clinical phenotypes and risk factors for their development could help inform prognosis and tailored clinical management for COVID-19.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18): 545-550, 2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-142205

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first detected in the United States during January 2020 (1). Since then, >980,000 cases have been reported in the United States, including >55,000 associated deaths as of April 28, 2020 (2). Detailed data on demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes for persons hospitalized with COVID-19 are needed to inform prevention strategies and community-specific intervention messages. For this report, CDC, the Georgia Department of Public Health, and eight Georgia hospitals (seven in metropolitan Atlanta and one in southern Georgia) summarized medical record-abstracted data for hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed* COVID-19 who were admitted during March 2020. Among 305 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 61.6% were aged <65 years, 50.5% were female, and 83.2% with known race/ethnicity were non-Hispanic black (black). Over a quarter of patients (26.2%) did not have conditions thought to put them at higher risk for severe disease, including being aged ≥65 years. The proportion of hospitalized patients who were black was higher than expected based on overall hospital admissions. In an adjusted time-to-event analysis, black patients were not more likely than were nonblack patients to receive invasive mechanical ventilation† (IMV) or to die during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.13). Given the overrepresentation of black patients within this hospitalized cohort, it is important for public health officials to ensure that prevention activities prioritize communities and racial/ethnic groups most affected by COVID-19. Clinicians and public officials should be aware that all adults, regardless of underlying conditions or age, are at risk for serious illness from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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