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PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477539


Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been successfully applied to patients with COVID-19 to prevent endotracheal intubation. However, experience of CPAP application in pregnant women with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is scarce. This study aimed to describe the natural history and outcome of ARF in a cohort of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, focusing on the feasibility of helmet CPAP (h-CPAP) application and the variables related to ARF worsening. A retrospective, observational study enrolling 41 consecutive pregnant women hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a tertiary care center between March 2020 and March 2021. h-CPAP was applied if arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was inferior to 200 and/or patients had respiratory distress despite adequate oxygen supplementation. Characteristics of patients requiring h-CPAP vs those in room air or oxygen only were compared. Twenty-seven (66%) patients showed hypoxemic ARF requiring oxygen supplementation and h-CPAP was needed in 10 cases (24%). PaO2/FiO2 was significantly improved during h-CPAP application. The device was well-tolerated in all cases with no adverse events. Higher serum C reactive protein and more extensive (≥3 lobes) involvement at chest X-ray upon admission were observed in the h-CPAP group. Assessment of temporal distribution of cases showed a substantially increased rate of CPAP requirement during the third pandemic wave (January-March 2021). In conclusion, h-CPAP was feasible, safe, well-tolerated and improved oxygenation in pregnant women with moderate-to-severe ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Moderate-to-severe ARF was more frequently observed during the third pandemic wave.

COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Insufficiency , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tertiary Care Centers , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Oxygen/blood , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Protein C/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
Placenta ; 110: 9-15, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213469


INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause an abnormal development of the placenta, thus influencing maternal and fetal outcomes. Few studies have reported data on placental morphology and histology in infected pregnant patients, although not compared with carefully matched controls. The aim of this study is to compare placental morphology and histology of pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2 to non-infected controls. METHODS: This is a prospective multicenter case-control study on 64 pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2 who delivered at term or late-preterm. Data were collected about pregnancy course, maternal and fetal outcomes, placental biometry and macro- and microscopical morphology. 64 not-infected women were identified as controls, matched by age, body mass index and ethnicity. RESULTS: Cases and controls had similar fetal and maternal outcomes. No significant differences were observed in placental macro- or microscopical morphology between the two groups. In the cases treated with antivirals, chloroquine, LMWH or antibiotics, placentas were heavier but not more efficient than the non-treated, since the fetal/placental weight ratio did not differ. Moreover, delayed villous maturation was more frequent in treated women, although not significantly. The newborns whose mothers received oxygen therapy as treatment had higher levels of umbilical cord pO2 at birth. DISCUSSION: In this prospective case-control study, SARS-CoV-2 infection during the third trimester did not influence placental histological pattern. Pharmacological and oxygen therapy administered to women affected by this viral infection could impact maternal and fetal outcomes and be associated to placental histological alterations.

COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/drug effects , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239173, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768840


OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the performance of an extended questionnaire in identifying cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among obstetric patients. 2. To evaluate the rate of infection among healthcare workers involved in women's care. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of obstetric patients admitted to MBBM Foundation and Buzzi Hospital (Lombardy, Northern Italy) from March 16th to May 22nd, 2020. Women were screened on admission by a questionnaire investigating major and minor symptoms of infection and high-risk contacts in the last 14 days. SARS-CoV-2 assessment was performed by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. Till April 7th, a targeted SARS-CoV-2 testing triggered by a positive questionnaire was used; from April 8th, a universal testing approach was implemented. RESULTS: There were 1,177 women screened by the questionnaire, which yielded a positive result in 130 (11.0%) cases. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 865 (73.5%) patients, identifying 51 (5.9%) infections. During the first period, there were 29 infected mothers, 4 (13.8%) of whom had a negative questionnaire. After universal testing implementation, there were 22 (3%, 95% CI 1.94% - 4.04%) infected mothers, 13 (59.1%) of whom had a negative questionnaire; rate of infection among asymptomatic women was 1.9%. Six of the 17 SARS-CoV-2-positive women with a negative questionnaire reported symptoms more than 14 but within 30 days before admission. Isolated olfactory or taste disorders were identified in 15.7% of infected patients. Rate of infection among healthcare workers was 5.8%. CONCLUSIONS: An exhaustive triage questionnaire can effectively discriminate women at low risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of a targeted and a universal viral testing approach. In 15.7% of infected women, correct classification as a suspected case of infection was due to investigation of olfactory and taste disorders. Extension of the assessed time-frame to 30 days may be worth considering to increase the questionnaire's performance.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Triage