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J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444


BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.

2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332282


Background Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH, without prior COVID-19, compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response and reactogenicity. Between February-September 2021, 1154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60], 86% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53], 29% male) were included. 884 PLWH received BNT162b2, 100 mRNA-1273, 150 ChAdOx1-S, and 20 Ad26.COV2.S. 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 98% virally suppressed, and the median CD4+T-cell count was 710 cells/µL [IQR 520-913]. 247 controls received mRNA-1273, 94 BNT162b2, 26 ChAdOx1-S and 73 Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean concentration was 1418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95%CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV-status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95%CI 0.508-0.725). In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+T-cell counts 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95%CI 1.876-4.314) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95%CI 1.961-4.394), whilst a viral load >50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95%CI 0.286-0.720). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+, and CD8+T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild without vaccine-related SAE. Conclusion After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH. To reach and maintain the same serological responses and vaccine efficacy as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required.