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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1S): S1-S18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597351


The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Strategy Report provides clinicians with an annually updated evidence-based strategy for asthma management and prevention, which can be adapted for local circumstances (e.g., medication availability). This article summarizes key recommendations from GINA 2021, and the evidence underpinning recent changes. GINA recommends that asthma in adults and adolescents should not be treated solely with short-acting ß2-agonist (SABA), because of the risks of SABA-only treatment and SABA overuse, and evidence for benefit of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Large trials show that as-needed combination ICS-formoterol reduces severe exacerbations by ≥60% in mild asthma compared with SABA alone, with similar exacerbation, symptom, lung function, and inflammatory outcomes as daily ICS plus as-needed SABA. Key changes in GINA 2021 include division of the treatment figure for adults and adolescents into two tracks. Track 1 (preferred) has low-dose ICS-formoterol as the reliever at all steps: as needed only in Steps 1-2 (mild asthma), and with daily maintenance ICS-formoterol (maintenance-and-reliever therapy, "MART") in Steps 3-5. Track 2 (alternative) has as-needed SABA across all steps, plus regular ICS (Step 2) or ICS-long-acting ß2-agonist (Steps 3-5). For adults with moderate-to-severe asthma, GINA makes additional recommendations in Step 5 for add-on long-acting muscarinic antagonists and azithromycin, with add-on biologic therapies for severe asthma. For children 6-11 years, new treatment options are added at Steps 3-4. Across all age groups and levels of severity, regular personalized assessment, treatment of modifiable risk factors, self-management education, skills training, appropriate medication adjustment, and review remain essential to optimize asthma outcomes.

Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Formoterol Fumarate/therapeutic use , Humans
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199897


Increased protein levels of ACE2 in alveolar epithelium of subjects who are homozygous for the ACE1 insertion of rs1799752 might facilitate host cell entry of #SARSCoV2 and explain the higher prevalence of #COVID19 in certain regions

Diabetes ; 69(12): 2691-2699, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836138


Increased expression of pulmonary ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, could contribute to increased infectivity of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes, but ACE2 expression has not been studied in lung tissue of subjects with diabetes. We therefore studied ACE2 mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue samples of subjects with and without diabetes that were collected between 2002 and 2020 from patients undergoing lobectomy for lung tumors. For RT-PCR analyses, samples from 15 subjects with diabetes were compared with 91 randomly chosen control samples. For immunohistochemical staining, samples from 26 subjects with diabetes were compared with 66 randomly chosen control samples. mRNA expression of ACE2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Protein levels of ACE2 were visualized by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples and quantified in alveolar and bronchial epithelium. Pulmonary ACE2 mRNA expression was not different between subjects with or without diabetes. In contrast, protein levels of ACE2 were significantly increased in both alveolar tissue and bronchial epithelium of patients with diabetes compared with control subjects, independent of smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use, and other potential confounders. To conclude, we show increased bronchial and alveolar ACE2 protein expression in patients with diabetes. Further research is needed to elucidate whether upregulation of ACE2 expression in airways and lungs has consequences on infectivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , RNA, Messenger
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(6): 900-902, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646649