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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30185, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be more severe in infants than in older children. To date, only a few case series have reported data on neonates with COVID-19, including mostly asymptomatic neonates who were tested because of exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study summarises nationwide epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of neonates presenting with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from hospitalised neonates with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive polymerase chain reaction on a respiratory sample) from 1 March 2020 to 31 September 2021. All 29 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported cases. RESULTS: In total, 73 neonates were included; 7 (10%) were preterm. The median age at presentation was 17 days (interquartile range [IQR] 11-23); 40 (55%) were female. The majority of neonates (64, 88%) were admitted from home. Nine (12%) had a pre-existing medical condition. Overall, the most common symptom recorded was fever in 52 (71%), followed by rhinorrhoea or nasal congestion in 32 (44%) and respiratory distress in 19 (26%). Twenty (27%) neonates presented with fever without a source. Seven (10%) neonates were admitted to an intensive care unit (5 for respiratory failure and 2 for monitoring). One (1%) neonate required inotropic support. The median length of hospital stay in term neonates was 4 days (IQR 3-5). Two (3%) were treated with corticosteroids and 1 (1%) with remdesivir. In total, 60 (82%) neonates had contact with a known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 index case. All of the 71 neonates for whom data were available were discharged to their homes without symptoms. CONCLUSION: In neonates, COVID-19 mainly presents with fever, and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract infection. The clinical course is mostly mild, requiring a short period of hospitalisation. COVID-19 needs to be added as a differential diagnosis in neonates who present with fever without a source. However, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 should not deter from the search for a serious bacterial infection. Further data from surveillance studies are needed to better understand COVID-19 in neonates, guide therapy and to evaluate whether the clinical spectrum is changing with new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prospective Studies
2.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 905046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2020, a new disease entitled Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), emerged, with thousands of children affected globally. There is no available evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) to date on the two most commonly used immunomodulatory treatments, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Therefore, the Swissped RECOVERY trial was conducted to assess whether intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone shortens hospital length of stay compared with IVIG. Methods and Analysis: Swissped RECOVERY is an ongoing investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter two-arm RCT in children and adolescents <18 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of PIMS-TS. The trial is recruiting at 10 sites across Switzerland. Patients diagnosed with PIMS-TS are randomized 1:1 to methylprednisolone IV (10 mg/kg/day for 3 days) or IVIG (2 g/kg as a single dose). The primary outcome is hospital length of stay censored at day 28, death, or discharge (whichever is first). The target total sample size is ~80 patients 1:1 randomized to each study arm. Ancillary and exploratory studies on inflammation, vaccination acceptance and coverage, long-term outcomes, and healthcare costs are pre-planned. Significance: Currently, robust trial evidence for the treatment of PIMS-TS is lacking, with a controversy surrounding the use of corticosteroids vs. IVIG. This trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness and safety of these two treatments. Ethics and Dissemination: The study protocol, which was designed based on the U.K. RECOVERY trial, the patient information and consent forms, and other study-specific study documents were approved by the local ethics committees (Project ID: 2021-00362). Registration Details: The study is registered on the Swiss National Clinical Trials Portal (SNCTP000004720) and Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04826588).

3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30105, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the periods of time during and after the first wave of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic in Europe are compared, the associated COVID-19 mortality seems to have decreased substantially. Various factors could explain this trend, including changes in demographic characteristics of infected persons and the improvement of case management. To date, no study has been performed to investigate the evolution of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in Switzerland, while also accounting for risk factors. METHODS: We investigated the trends in COVID-19-related mortality (in-hospital and in-intermediate/intensive-care) over time in Switzerland, from February 2020 to June 2021, comparing in particular the first and the second wave. We used data from the COVID-19 Hospital-based Surveillance (CH-SUR) database. We performed survival analyses adjusting for well-known risk factors of COVID-19 mortality (age, sex and comorbidities) and accounting for competing risk. RESULTS: Our analysis included 16,984 patients recorded in CH-SUR, with 2201 reported deaths due to COVID-19 (13.0%). We found that overall in-hospital mortality was lower during the second wave of COVID-19 than in the first wave (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63- 0.78; p <0.001), a decrease apparently not explained by changes in demographic characteristics of patients. In contrast, mortality in intermediate and intensive care significantly increased in the second wave compared with the first wave (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49; p = 0.029), with significant changes in the course of hospitalisation between the first and the second wave. CONCLUSION: We found that, in Switzerland, COVID-19 mortality decreased among hospitalised persons, whereas it increased among patients admitted to intermediate or intensive care, when comparing the second wave to the first wave. We put our findings in perspective with changes over time in case management, treatment strategy, hospital burden and non-pharmaceutical interventions. Further analyses of the potential effect of virus variants and of vaccination on mortality would be crucial to have a complete overview of COVID-19 mortality trends throughout the different phases of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323069

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually less severe in children compared to adults. This study describes detailed clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of children with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in a non-hospitalised and hospitalised setting and quantifies factors associated with admission to hospital and intensive care unit in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection on a nationwide level.Methods: Data were collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from children < 18 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 33 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported non-hospitalised and hospitalised cases from March 1 to October 31, 2020 during both pandemic peaks.Findings: In total, 678 children were included. The median age was 12.2 (IQR 5.0 – 14.6) years, 316 (47%) were female and 106 (16%) had comorbidities. Overall, 126 (18.6%) children were hospitalised of whom 16 (12.7%) required ICU admission. Comorbidities were the only factor associated with hospital admission in a multivariable regression analysis (odds ratio 3.23, 95%CI 1.89 to 5.50;p-value <0.01). Hospitalised children more often presented with fever (96 [76.2%] vs 209 [38.1%], p-value<0.01) and rash (16 [12.8%] vs 6 [1.1%], p-value<0.01). Anosmia/dysgeusia was more prevalent in non-hospitalised children (73 [13.3%] vs 3 [2.4%], p-value<0.01). In the hospitalised children, oxygen treatment was required in 34 (27.0%), inotropes in nine (7.3%) and mechanical ventilation in eight (6.3%). Complications were reported in 28 (4.1%) children with cardiovascular complications being most frequent (11 [1.6%]). Three deaths were recorded.Interpretation: This study confirms that COVID-19 is mostly a mild disease in children. Fever, rash, and comorbidities are associated with higher admission rates. Continuous observation is necessary to further understand paediatric COVID-19, guide therapy and evaluate the necessity for vaccination in children.Funding: The study is supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and has received grants from the Swiss Society of Paediatrics and the Paediatric Infectious Disease Group of Switzerland.Declaration of Interest: None to declare.Ethical Approval: The study has received ethical approval by the Ethikkommission Nordwest- undZentralschweiz (EKNZ 2020-01130).

6.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613508

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSince the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the disease has frequently been compared with seasonal influenza, but this comparison is based on little empirical data.AimThis study compares in-hospital outcomes for patients with community-acquired COVID-19 and patients with community-acquired influenza in Switzerland.MethodsThis retrospective multi-centre cohort study includes patients > 18 years admitted for COVID-19 or influenza A/B infection determined by RT-PCR. Primary and secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission for patients with COVID-19 or influenza. We used Cox regression (cause-specific and Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard models) to account for time-dependency and competing events with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounders.ResultsIn 2020, 2,843 patients with COVID-19 from 14 centres were included. Between 2018 and 2020, 1,381 patients with influenza from seven centres were included; 1,722 (61%) of the patients with COVID-19 and 666 (48%) of the patients with influenza were male (p < 0.001). The patients with COVID-19 were younger (median 67 years; interquartile range (IQR): 54-78) than the patients with influenza (median 74 years; IQR: 61-84) (p < 0.001). A larger percentage of patients with COVID-19 (12.8%) than patients with influenza (4.4%) died in hospital (p < 0.001). The final adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio for mortality was 3.01 (95% CI: 2.22-4.09; p < 0.001) for COVID-19 compared with influenza and 2.44 (95% CI: 2.00-3.00, p < 0.001) for ICU admission.ConclusionCommunity-acquired COVID-19 was associated with worse outcomes compared with community-acquired influenza, as the hazards of ICU admission and in-hospital death were about two-fold to three-fold higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1245-1255, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540222

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually less severe in children compared to adults. This study describes detailed clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of children with COVID-19 in a non-hospitalised and hospitalised setting and quantifies factors associated with admission to hospital and intensive care unit in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection on a nationwide level. Data were collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from children < 18 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 33 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported non-hospitalised and hospitalised cases from March 1 to October 31, 2020 during both pandemic peaks. In total, 678 children were included. The median age was 12.2 years (IQR 5.0-14.6), 316 (46.6%) were female and 106 (15.6%) had comorbidities. Overall, 126 (18.6%) children were hospitalised of whom 16 (12.7%) required ICU admission. Comorbidities were the only factor associated with hospital admission in a multivariable regression analysis (odds ratio 3.23, 95%CI 1.89 to 5.50; p-value < 0.01). Children with preexisting comorbidities did not require ICU admission more often. Hospitalised children more often presented with fever (96 [76.2%] vs 209 [38.1%], p-value < 0.01) and rash (16 [12.8%] vs 6 [1.1%], p-value < 0.01). Anosmia/dysgeusia was more prevalent in non-hospitalised children (73 [13.3%] vs 3 [2.4%], p-value < 0.01). In hospitalised children, oxygen treatment was required in 34 (27.0%), inotropes in nine (7.3%) and mechanical ventilation in eight (6.3%) cases. Complications were reported in 28 (4.1%) children with cardiovascular complications being most frequent (12 [1.8%]). Three deaths were recorded.Conclusion: This study confirms that COVID-19 is mostly a mild disease in children. Fever, rash and comorbidities are associated with higher admission rates. Continuous observation is necessary to further understand paediatric COVID-19, guide therapy and evaluate the necessity for vaccination in children. What is Known: • Clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children vary from asymptomatic to critical disease requiring intensive care unit admission. • Most studies are based on hospitalised children only; currently, there is limited data on non-hospitalised children. What is New: • The clinical spectrum and severity of COVID-19 is influenced by age: in children less than 2 years, fever, cough and rhinorrhoea are the most common symptoms and in adolescents, fever, cough and headache are more common. • Hospitalised children more often presented with fever and rash, while anosmia/dysgeusia is more prevalent in non-hospitalised children. • Children with pre-existing comorbidities are more frequently hospitalised but do not require ICU admission more often.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30057, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403974

ABSTRACT

In anticipation of an interseasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic, a clinician-led reporting system was rapidly established to capture RSV infections in Swiss hospitals, starting in January 2021. Here, we present details of the reporting system and first results to June 2021. An unusual epidemiology was observed with an interseasonal surge of RSV infections associated with COVID-19-related non-pharmacological interventions. These data allowed real-time adjustment of RSV prophylaxis guidelines and consequently underscore the need for and continuation of systematic nationwide RSV surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20547, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As clinical signs of COVID-19 differ widely among individuals, from mild to severe, the definition of risk groups has important consequences for recommendations to the public, control measures and patient management, and needs to be reviewed regularly. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission for hospitalised COVID-19 patients during the first epidemic wave in Switzerland, as an example of a country that coped well during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: This study included all (n = 3590) adult polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed hospitalised patients in 17 hospitals from the hospital-based surveillance of COVID-19 (CH-Sur) by 1 September 2020. We calculated univariable and multivariable (adjusted) (1) proportional hazards (Fine and Gray) survival regression models and (2) logistic regression models for in-hospital mortality and admission to ICU, to evaluate the most common comorbidities as potential risk factors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found that old age was the strongest factor for in-hospital mortality after having adjusted for gender and the considered comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR] 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33−2.59 and HR 5.6 95% CI 5.23−6 for ages 65 and 80 years, respectively). In addition, male gender remained an important risk factor in the multivariable models (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.41−1.53). Of all comorbidities, renal disease, oncological pathologies, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease (but not hypertension) and dementia were also risk factors for in-hospital mortality. With respect to ICU admission risk, the pattern was different, as patients with higher chances of survival might have been admitted more often to ICU. Male gender (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.58−2.31), hypertension (OR  1.3, 95% CI 1.07−1.59) and age 55–79 years (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06−1.26) are risk factors for ICU admission. Patients aged 80+ years, as well as patients with dementia or with liver disease were admitted less often to ICU. CONCLUSION: We conclude that increasing age is the most important risk factor for in-hospital mortality of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, along with male gender and followed by the presence of comorbidities such as renal diseases, chronic respiratory or cardiovascular disease, oncological malignancies and dementia. Male gender, hypertension and age between 55 and 79 years are, however, risk factors for ICU admission. Mortality and ICU admission need to be considered as separate outcomes when investigating risk factors for pandemic control measures and for hospital resources planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20475, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, which emerged in China in late 2019, rapidly spread across the world with several million victims in 213 countries. Switzerland was severely hit by the virus, with 43,000 confirmed cases as of 1 September 2020. AIM: In cooperation with the Federal Office of Public Health, we set up a surveillance database in February 2020 to monitor hospitalised patients with COVID-19, in addition to their mandatory reporting system. METHODS: Patients hospitalised for more than 24 hours with a positive polymerase chain-reaction test, from 20 Swiss hospitals, are included. Data were collected in a customised case report form based on World Health Organisation recommendations and adapted to local needs. Nosocomial infections were defined as infections for which the onset of symptoms was more than 5 days after the patient’s admission date. RESULTS: As of 1 September 2020, 3645 patients were included. Most patients were male (2168, 59.5%), and aged between 50 and 89 years (2778, 76.2%), with a median age of 68 (interquartile range 54–79). Community infections dominated with 3249 (89.0%) reports. Comorbidities were frequently reported, with hypertension (1481, 61.7%), cardiovascular diseases (948, 39.5%) and diabetes (660, 27.5%) being the most frequent in adults; respiratory diseases and asthma (4, 21.1%), haematological and oncological diseases (3, 15.8%) were the most frequent in children. Complications occurred in 2679 (73.4%) episodes, mostly respiratory diseases (2470, 93.2% in adults; 16, 55.2% in children), and renal (681, 25.7%) and cardiac (631, 23.8%) complications for adults. The second and third most frequent complications in children affected the digestive system and the liver (7, 24.1%). A targeted treatment was given in 1299 (35.6%) episodes, mostly with hydroxychloroquine (989, 76.1%). Intensive care units stays were reported in 578 (15.8%) episodes. A total of 527 (14.5%) deaths were registered, all among adults. CONCLUSION: The surveillance system has been successfully initiated and provides a robust set of data for Switzerland by including about 80% (compared with official statistics) of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 hospitalised patients, with similar age and comorbidity distributions. It adds detailed information on the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of these cases and, therefore, is a valuable addition to the existing mandatory reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
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