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BMJ Open ; 11(2): e045141, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066891


OBJECTIVE: To mitigate the burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system, information on the prognosis of the disease is needed. The recently developed Risk Stratification in the Emergency Department in Acutely ill Older Patients (RISE UP) score has very good discriminatory value for short-term mortality in older patients in the emergency department (ED). It consists of six readily available items. We hypothesised that the RISE UP score could have discriminatory value for 30-day mortality in ED patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Two EDs of the Zuyderland Medical Centre, secondary care hospital in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The study sample consisted of 642 adult ED patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 3 March and until 25 May 2020. Inclusion criteria were (1) admission to the hospital with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and (2) positive result of the PCR or (very) high suspicion of COVID-19 according to the chest CT scan. OUTCOME: Primary outcome was 30-day mortality, secondary outcome was a composite of 30-day mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Within 30 days after presentation, 167 patients (26.0%) died and 102 patients (15.9%) were admitted to ICU. The RISE UP score showed good discriminatory value for 30-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.77, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.81) and for the composite outcome (AUC 0.72, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.76). Patients with RISE UP scores below 10% (n=121) had favourable outcome (zero deaths and six ICU admissions), while those with scores above 30% (n=221) were at high risk of adverse outcome (46.6% mortality and 19.0% ICU admissions). CONCLUSION: The RISE UP score is an accurate prognostic model for adverse outcome in ED patients with COVID-19. It can be used to identify patients at risk of short-term adverse outcome and may help guide decision-making and allocating healthcare resources.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Risk Assessment/methods , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 264-268, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932986


OBJECTIVE: To compare survival of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated in hospitals that either did or did not routinely treat patients with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. METHODS: We analysed data of COVID-19 patients treated in nine hospitals in the Netherlands. Inclusion dates ranged from 27 February to 15 May 2020, when the Dutch national guidelines no longer supported the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine. Seven hospitals routinely treated patients with (hydroxy)chloroquine, two hospitals did not. Primary outcome was 21-day all-cause mortality. We performed a survival analysis using log-rank test and Cox regression with adjustment for age, sex and covariates based on premorbid health, disease severity and the use of steroids for adult respiratory distress syndrome, including dexamethasone. RESULTS: Among 1949 individuals, 21-day mortality was 21.5% in 1596 patients treated in hospitals that routinely prescribed (hydroxy)chloroquine, and 15.0% in 353 patients treated in hospitals that did not. In the adjusted Cox regression models this difference disappeared, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.09 (95% CI 0.81-1.47). When stratified by treatment actually received in individual patients, the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine was associated with an increased 21-day mortality (HR 1.58; 95% CI 1.24-2.02) in the full model. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for confounders, mortality was not significantly different in hospitals that routinely treated patients with (hydroxy)chloroquine compared with hospitals that did not. We compared outcomes of hospital strategies rather than outcomes of individual patients to reduce the chance of indication bias. This study adds evidence against the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hospitals/standards , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001675, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-253706


Younger patients with COVID-19 may experience an exaggerated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and develop cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which may be life threatening. There is no proven antiviral therapy for COVID-19 so far, but profound immunosuppression has recently been suggested as a treatment for COVID-19-associated CRS. We present a case of life-threatening CRS caused by COVID-19 infection with a favourable response to immunosuppressive therapy with tocilizumab (TCZ). The rapid clinical and biochemical improvement following TCZ administration suggests that treatment with immunotherapy can be life-saving in selected patients with COVID-19-induced CRS. LEARNING POINTS: Cytokine release syndrome may cause sudden and potentially life-threatening clinical deterioration in COVID-19 pneumonia, particularly in younger patients.Immunosuppressive therapy may provide important additional therapeutic benefit in these patients.Tocilizumab, a specific IL-6 inhibitor, led to dramatic clinical improvement in a young patient with severe COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome.