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1.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1870, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244935

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVaccination remains essential in preventing morbidity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We previously showed that >10mg/day prednisolone and methotrexate use were associated with reduced antibody concentrations four weeks after primary vaccination in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) [1].ObjectivesHere, we performed a follow-up study to measure the decay of antibody concentrations over time and the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccination.MethodsGCA/PMR patients included in the primary vaccination (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) study were asked again to donate blood samples six months after primary vaccination (n=24) and one month after booster vaccination (n=46, BNT162b2 or mRNA1273). Data were compared to that of age-, sex-, and vaccine-matched controls (n=58 and n=42, respectively).ResultsAntibody concentrations decreased faster over time in GCA/PMR patients than in controls, but this decrease was not associated with treatment during primary vaccination. Post-booster antibody concentrations were comparable between patients and controls. Antibody concentrations post booster vaccination associated strongly with antibody concentrations post primary vaccination, but not with treatment during booster vaccination. However, the fold-change of post-booster vaccination showed a slight negative correlation with the post-primary vaccine antibodies.ConclusionThese results indicate that patients with impaired vaccine responses after primary vaccination, have slightly stronger increases in humoral immunity after booster vaccination, but this is not enough to reach a similar protection. The decrease in humoral immunity, and subsequent increase after booster vaccination, is likely not impacted by prednisolone or methotrexate treatment. Rather, these treatments put the patients at an immunogenic disadvantage during primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which is not fully repaired by a single booster vaccination. This longitudinal study in GCA/PMR patients stresses the importance of repeat booster vaccination for patients that used >10mg/day prednisolone or methotrexate during primary vaccination.Reference[1]van Sleen Y, van der Geest, Kornelis SM, Reitsema RD, Esen I, Terpstra JH, Raveling-Eelsing E, et al. Humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in patients with giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. RMD open 2022;8(2):e002479.Figure 1.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsYannick van Sleen: None declared, Kornelis van der Geest Speakers bureau: Speaker fees from Roche, Grant/research support from: Grant support from Abbvie, Annemarie Buisman: None declared, Maria Sandovici: None declared, Debbie van Baarle: None declared, Elisabeth Brouwer: None declared.

2.
RMD Open ; 8(2) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064276

ABSTRACT

Objectives Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are overlapping autoinflammatory diseases affecting people over 50 years. The diseases are treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone, methotrexate, leflunomide and tocilizumab. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in these diseases (based on humoral and cellular immunity). Methods Patients (n=45 GCA, n=33 PMR) visited the outpatient clinic twice: pre-vaccination and 4 weeks after the second dose (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 vaccine). Patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were excluded. In both pre-vaccination and post-vaccination samples, anti-Spike antibody concentrations were assessed and compared with age-, sex-and vaccine-matched control groups (n=98). In addition, the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific T-cells was assessed by IFN-gammaELIspot assay, and side effects and disease activity were recorded. Results GCA/PMR patients did not have reduced antibody concentrations compared with controls. However, linear regression analysis revealed a significant association of methotrexate and >10 mg/day prednisolone use with lower antibody concentrations in GCA/PMR patients. Evidence of cellular immunity, as assessed by ELIspot assay, was found in 67% of GCA/PMR patients. Patients using >10 mg/day prednisolone had reduced cellular immunity. Importantly, vaccination did not lead to significant side effects or changes in disease activity. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was safe for GCA/PMR patients and immunogenicity was comparable to other older individuals. However, patients using methotrexate and particularly >10 mg/day prednisolone did show lower vaccine responses, which corroborates findings in other autoinflammatory patient populations. These patients may therefore be at higher risk of (potentially even severe) breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. Copyright ©

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:373, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008868

ABSTRACT

Background: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are overlapping autoinfammatory diseases affecting people over 50 years. The diseases are treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone, metho-trexate, lefunomide and tocilizumab. Even though GCA and PMR patients have a substantially higher risk for infections, little is known about humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination in these patients. Objectives: In this study we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in these diseases. Methods: Patients (n=45 GCA, n=33 PMR) visited the outpatient clinic twice: pre-vaccination and 4 weeks post-vaccination (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 vaccine). Patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were excluded. In both pre-and post-vaccination samples, anti-Spike antibody concentrations were assessed and compared to age-, sex-and vaccine-matched control groups (n=98). In addition, the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specifc T-cells was assessed by IFN-γ ELIspot assay, and side-effects and disease activity were recorded. Results: The GCA/PMR patients, as a group, did not have reduced antibody concentrations compared to controls. However, linear regression analysis revealed a signifcant association of methotrexate and >10mg/day prednisolone use with lower antibody concentrations in GCA/PMR patients. Evidence of cellular immunity, as assessed by ELIspot assay, was found in 67% of GCA/PMR patients, and was correlated with humoral immunity (Figure 1). Patients using >10mg/day prednisolone had reduced cellular immunity. Importantly, vaccination did not lead to signifcant side-effects or changes in disease activity. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was safe for GCA/PMR patients and immunogenicity was comparable to other older individuals. However, patients using methotrexate and particularly >10mg/day prednisolone did show lower vaccine responses, which corroborates fndings in other autoinfammatory patient populations. These patients may therefore be at higher risk of (potentially even severe) breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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