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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(2): 59-65, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people with diabetes, who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19.* Increases in the number of type 1 diabetes diagnoses (1,2) and increased frequency and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the time of diabetes diagnosis (3) have been reported in European pediatric populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In adults, diabetes might be a long-term consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4-7). To evaluate the risk for any new diabetes diagnosis (type 1, type 2, or other diabetes) >30 days† after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), CDC estimated diabetes incidence among patients aged <18 years (patients) with diagnosed COVID-19 from retrospective cohorts constructed using IQVIA health care claims data from March 1, 2020, through February 26, 2021, and compared it with incidence among patients matched by age and sex 1) who did not receive a COVID-19 diagnosis during the pandemic, or 2) who received a prepandemic non-COVID-19 acute respiratory infection (ARI) diagnosis. Analyses were replicated using a second data source (HealthVerity; March 1, 2020-June 28, 2021) that included patients who had any health care encounter possibly related to COVID-19. Among these patients, diabetes incidence was significantly higher among those with COVID-19 than among those 1) without COVID-19 in both databases (IQVIA: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.98-3.56; HealthVerity: HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.20-1.44) and 2) with non-COVID-19 ARI in the prepandemic period (IQVIA, HR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.64-2.86). The observed increased risk for diabetes among persons aged <18 years who had COVID-19 highlights the importance of COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, for all eligible persons in this age group,§ in addition to chronic disease prevention and management. The mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 might lead to incident diabetes is likely complex and could differ by type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Monitoring for long-term consequences, including signs of new diabetes, following SARS-CoV-2 infection is important in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk , United States/epidemiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293105

ABSTRACT

Previous vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from symptomatic infection;how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Here, we assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized SARS-CoV-2 assays on 3,067 serum specimens collected during July 27, 2020-August 27, 2020 from COVID-19 unvaccinated persons with detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using qualitative antibody assays. Quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r=0.76, p<0.0001) and were noted to be several fold lower in the unvaccinated study population as compared to published data on concentrations noted 28 days post-vaccination. In this convenience sample, ~88% of neutralizing and ~63-86% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% COVID-19 VE against symptomatic infection from published VE studies;~30% of neutralizing and 1-14% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% COVID-19 VE. These data support observations of infection-induced immunity and current recommendations for vaccination post infection to maximize protection against symptomatic COVID-19.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S84-S91, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a result of the continuing surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many patients have delayed or missed routine screening and preventive services. Medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease, mental health issues, and substance use disorder, may be identified later, leading to increases in patient morbidity and mortality. METHODS: National Emergency Medical Services Information System data were used to assess 911 emergency medical services (EMS) activations during 2018-2020. For specific activation types, the percentage of total activations was calculated per week, and Joinpoint analysis was used to identify changes over time. RESULTS: Since March 2020, the number of 911 EMS activations has decreased, while the percentages of on-scene death, cardiac arrest, and opioid use/overdose EMS activations were higher than prepandemic levels. During the early pandemic period, percentages of total EMS activations increased for on-scene death (from 1.3% to 2.4% during weeks 11-15), cardiac arrest (from 1.3% to 2.2% during weeks 11-15), and opioid use/overdose (from 0.6% to 1.1% during weeks 8-18). The percentages then declined but remained above prepandemic levels through calendar week 52. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has indirect consequences, such as relative increases in EMS activations for cardiac events and opioid use/overdose, possibly linked to disruptions is healthcare access and health-seeking behaviors. Increasing telehealth visits and other opportunities for patient-provider touch points for chronic disease and substance use disorders that emphasize counseling, preventive care, and expanded access to medications can disrupt delayed care-seeking during the pandemic and potentially prevent premature death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Medical Services , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): 369-376, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258300

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare services, reducing opportunities to conduct routine hepatitis C virus antibody screening, clinical care, and treatment. Therefore, people living with undiagnosed hepatitis C virus during the pandemic may later become identified at more advanced stages of the disease, leading to higher morbidity and mortality rates. Further, unidentified hepatitis C virus-infected individuals may continue to unknowingly transmit the virus to others. METHODS: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, data were evaluated from a large national reference clinical laboratory and from national estimates of dispensed prescriptions for hepatitis C virus treatment. Investigators estimated the average number of hepatitis C virus antibody tests, hepatitis C virus antibody-positive test results, and hepatitis C virus RNA-positive test results by month in January-July for 2018 and 2019, compared with the same months in 2020. To assess the impact of hepatitis C virus treatment, dispensed hepatitis C virus direct-acting antiretroviral medications were examined for the same time periods. Statistical analyses of trends were performed using negative binomial models. RESULTS: Compared with the 2018 and 2019 months, hepatitis C virus antibody testing volume decreased 59% during April 2020 and rebounded to a 6% reduction in July 2020. The number of hepatitis C virus RNA-positive results fell by 62% in March 2020 and remained 39% below the baseline by July 2020. For hepatitis C virus treatment, prescriptions decreased 43% in May, 37% in June, and 38% in July relative to the corresponding months in 2018 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, continued public health messaging, interventions and outreach programs to restore hepatitis C virus testing and treatment to prepandemic levels, and maintenance of public health efforts to eliminate hepatitis C infections remain important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S84-S91, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a result of the continuing surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many patients have delayed or missed routine screening and preventive services. Medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease, mental health issues, and substance use disorder, may be identified later, leading to increases in patient morbidity and mortality. METHODS: National Emergency Medical Services Information System data were used to assess 911 emergency medical services (EMS) activations during 2018-2020. For specific activation types, the percentage of total activations was calculated per week, and Joinpoint analysis was used to identify changes over time. RESULTS: Since March 2020, the number of 911 EMS activations has decreased, while the percentages of on-scene death, cardiac arrest, and opioid use/overdose EMS activations were higher than prepandemic levels. During the early pandemic period, percentages of total EMS activations increased for on-scene death (from 1.3% to 2.4% during weeks 11-15), cardiac arrest (from 1.3% to 2.2% during weeks 11-15), and opioid use/overdose (from 0.6% to 1.1% during weeks 8-18). The percentages then declined but remained above prepandemic levels through calendar week 52. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has indirect consequences, such as relative increases in EMS activations for cardiac events and opioid use/overdose, possibly linked to disruptions is healthcare access and health-seeking behaviors. Increasing telehealth visits and other opportunities for patient-provider touch points for chronic disease and substance use disorders that emphasize counseling, preventive care, and expanded access to medications can disrupt delayed care-seeking during the pandemic and potentially prevent premature death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Medical Services , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1210-1215, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745358

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient.* Following reports of cardiac and other adverse events in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 (2), on April 24, 2020, FDA issued a caution against its use† and on June 15, rescinded its EUA for hydroxychloroquine from the Strategic National Stockpile.§ Following the FDA's issuance of caution and EUA rescindment, on May 12 and June 16, the federal COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel issued recommendations against the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19; the panel also noted that at that time no medication could be recommended for COVID-19 pre- or postexposure prophylaxis outside the setting of a clinical trial (3). However, public discussion concerning the effectiveness of these drugs on outcomes of COVID-19 (4,5), and clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of COVID-19 continue.¶ In response to recent reports of notable increases in prescriptions for hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (6), CDC analyzed outpatient retail pharmacy transaction data to identify potential differences in prescriptions dispensed by provider type during January-June 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. Before 2020, primary care providers and specialists who routinely prescribed hydroxychloroquine, such as rheumatologists and dermatologists, accounted for approximately 97% of new prescriptions. New prescriptions by specialists who did not typically prescribe these medications (defined as specialties accounting for ≤2% of new prescriptions before 2020) increased from 1,143 prescriptions in February 2020 to 75,569 in March 2020, an 80-fold increase from March 2019. Although dispensing trends are returning to prepandemic levels, continued adherence to current clinical guidelines for the indicated use of these medications will ensure their availability and benefit to patients for whom their use is indicated (3,4), because current data on treatment and pre- or postexposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 indicate that the potential benefits of these drugs do not appear to outweigh their risks.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Specialization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Treatment Outcome , United States
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