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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982295

ABSTRACT

The 2019 outbreak of corona virus disease began from Wuhan (China), transforming into a leading pandemic, posing an immense threat to the global population. The WHO coined the term nCOVID-19 for the disease on 11th February, 2020 and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV-2, on account of its similarity with SARS-CoV-1 of 2003. The infection is associated with fever, cough, pneumonia, lung damage, and ARDS along with clinical implications of lung opacities. Brief understanding of the entry target of virus, i.e., ACE2 receptors has enabled numerous treatment options as discussed in this review. The manuscript provides a holistic picture of treatment options in COVID-19, such as non-specific anti-viral drugs, immunosuppressive agents, anti-inflammatory candidates, anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, antibodies and anti-parasitic, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, anti-retroviral, vitamins and hormones, JAK inhibitors, and blood plasma therapy. The text targets to enlist the investigations conducted on all the above categories of drugs, with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, to accelerate their significance in hindering the disease progression. The data collected primarily targets recently published articles and most recent records of clinical trials, focusing on the last 10-year database. The current review provides a comprehensive view on the critical need of finding a suitable treatment for the currently prevalent COVID-19 disease, and an opportunity for the researchers to investigate the varying possibilities to find and optimized treatment approach to mitigate and ameliorate the chaos created by the pandemic worldwide.

2.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy ; 153:113432, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936095

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered the etiological agent of the disease that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, and for which there is currently no effective treatment. This pandemic has shown that the rapid identification of therapeutic compounds is critical (when a new virus with high transmissibility occurs) to prevent or reduce as much as possible the loss of human lives. To meet the urgent need for drugs, many strategies were applied for the discovery, respectively the identification of potential therapies / drugs for SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking and virtual screening are two of the in silico tools/techniques that provided the identification of few SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors, removing ineffective or less effective drugs and thus preventing the loss of resources such as time and additional costs. The main target of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of how in-silico tools have been used in the crisis management of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, especially in virtual screening of substances used in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and analysis of compounds with known action on structurally similar proteins from other viruses;also, completions were added to the way in which these methods came to meet the requirements of biomedical research in the field. Moreover, the importance and impact of the topic approached for researchers was highlighted by conducting an extensive bibliometric analysis.

3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(6)2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911464

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Quarantine, isolation and bed rest associated with COVID-19 infection favored the loss of muscle and bone mass, especially in elderly patients. The current study aims to compare the presence of sarcopenia and osteoporosis in patients with a recent (one month) history of SARS-CoV-2 infection versus the general population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 157 patients were enrolled, divided into two groups, comparable in structure. The COVID-19 group (group C) consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection within the last 30 days. The non-COVID-19 group (group NC) consists of 71 patients who had no clinical signs of respiratory infection and were not quarantined/hospitalized in the last 3 months. Muscle strength, incidence of sarcopenia (using SARC-F score) and osteoporosis (DEXA determination) and physical performance (SPPB score) in the two groups were assessed and compared. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the SPPB scores of the C group versus the NC group. Statistically significant differences were found in the evaluation of three parameters included in the SARC-F score. Patients in the C group had difficulties in standing up from a chair (p = 0.009) and climbing stairs (p = 0.030) due to lower muscle strength (p = 0.002) compared with patients in the NC group. No correlation of the SARC F and SPPB scores with the T score values obtained by osteo-densitometry was found. Conclusions: The sudden and significant reduction in physical activity, through various measures taken in the general population during the pandemic, led to an increased incidence of sarcopenia, both in patients who did not have COVID-19 infection and among those quarantined/hospitalized for this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Medicina ; 58(6):828, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894128

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Quarantine, isolation and bed rest associated with COVID-19 infection favored the loss of muscle and bone mass, especially in elderly patients. The current study aims to compare the presence of sarcopenia and osteoporosis in patients with a recent (one month) history of SARS-CoV-2 infection versus the general population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 157 patients were enrolled, divided into two groups, comparable in structure. The COVID-19 group (group C) consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection within the last 30 days. The non-COVID-19 group (group NC) consists of 71 patients who had no clinical signs of respiratory infection and were not quarantined/hospitalized in the last 3 months. Muscle strength, incidence of sarcopenia (using SARC-F score) and osteoporosis (DEXA determination) and physical performance (SPPB score) in the two groups were assessed and compared. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the SPPB scores of the C group versus the NC group. Statistically significant differences were found in the evaluation of three parameters included in the SARC-F score. Patients in the C group had difficulties in standing up from a chair (p = 0.009) and climbing stairs (p = 0.030) due to lower muscle strength (p = 0.002) compared with patients in the NC group. No correlation of the SARC F and SPPB scores with the T score values obtained by osteo-densitometry was found. Conclusions: The sudden and significant reduction in physical activity, through various measures taken in the general population during the pandemic, led to an increased incidence of sarcopenia, both in patients who did not have COVID-19 infection and among those quarantined/hospitalized for this condition.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 42404-42432, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872658

ABSTRACT

The human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus; the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Natural products, secondary metabolites show positive leads with antiviral and immunotherapy treatments using genomic studies in silico docking. In addition, it includes the action of a mechanism targeting the SARS-CoV-2. In this literature, we aimed to evaluate the antiviral movement of the NT-VRL-1 unique terpene definition to Human coronavirus (HCoV-229E). The effects of 19 hydrolysable tannins on the SARS-CoV-2 were therefore theoretically reviewed and analyzed utilising the molecular operating surroundings for their C-Like protease 3CLpro catalytic dyad residues Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (MOE 09). Pedunculagin, tercatan, and castalin were detected as interacting strongly with SARS-receptor Cov-2's binding site and catalytic dyad (Cys145 and His41). SARS-CoV-2 methods of subunit S1 (ACE2) inhibit the interaction of the receiver with the s-protein once a drug molecule is coupled to the s-protein and prevent it from infecting the target cells in alkaloids. Our review strongly demonstrates the evidence that natural compounds and their derivatives can be used against the human coronavirus and serves as an area of research for future perspective.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113178, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866910

ABSTRACT

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, endothelium imbalance, chronic inflammation, immune dysregulation, and its comorbidities may all have a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the pulmonary fibrosis and cytokine storm, which leads to failure of lung function, which is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Obesity may also disrupt the function of mucociliary escalators and cooperation of epithelial cell's motile cilia in the airway, limiting the clearance of the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Adipose tissues in obese patients have a greater number of proteases and receptors for SARS-CoV-2 admittance, proposing that they could serve as an accelerator and reservoir for this virus, boosting immunological response and systemic inflammation. Lastly, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as anti-IL-6 and the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells could be used as a modulation therapy of immunity to help COVID-19 patients. Obesity, on the other hand, is linked to the progress of COVID-19 through a variety of molecular pathways, and obese people are part of the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible individuals, necessitating more protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113089, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821149

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and it is the leading cause of a wide range of costly complications. Diabetes is linked to a multi-fold increase in mortality and when compared to non-diabetics, the intensity and prevalence of COVID-19 ailment among diabetic individuals are more. Since its discovery in Wuhan, COVID-19 has grown rapidly and shown a wide range of severity. Temperature, lymphopenia, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, and tiredness are recognized as the characteristic of individuals infected with COVID-19 disease. In COVID-19 patients, diabetes and other related comorbidities are substantial predictors of disease and mortality. According to a recent study, SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for covid-19 disease) may also lead to direct pancreatic harm, which could aggravate hyperglycemia and potentially cause the establishment of diabetes in formerly non-diabetic individuals. This bidirectional association of COVID-19 and diabetes load the burden on health care professionals throughout the world. It is recommended that gliptin medications be taken moderately, blood glucose levels must be kept under control, ACE inhibitors should be used in moderation, decrease the number of avoidable hospitalizations, nutritional considerations, and some other prevention measures, such as immunization, are highly recommended. SARS-CoV-2 may cause pleiotropic changes in glucose homeostasis, which could exacerbate the pathophysiology of pre-existing diabetes or result in new disease processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112756, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708753

ABSTRACT

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global chaos, where a novel Omicron variant has challenged the healthcare system, followed by which it has been referred to as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), owing to its alarming transmission and infectivity rate. The large number of mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is responsible for strengthening of the spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, thereby explaining the elevated threat. This is supplemented by enhanced resistance of the variant towards pre-existing antibodies approved for the COVID-19 therapy. The manuscript brings into light failure of existing therapies to provide the desired effect, however simultaneously discussing the novel possibilities on the verge of establishing suitable treatment portfolio. The authors entail the risks associated with omicron resistance against antibodies and vaccine ineffectiveness on one side, and novel approaches and targets - kinase inhibitors, viral protease inhibitors, phytoconstituents, entry pathways - on the other. The manuscript aims to provide a holistic picture about the Omicron variant, by providing comprehensive discussions related to multiple aspects of the mutated spike variant, which might aid the global researchers and healthcare experts in finding an optimised solution to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cathepsins/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/physiology , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112700, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664683

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents an unmet clinical need, due to a high mortality rate, rapid mutation rate in the virus, increased chances of reinfection, lack of effectiveness of repurposed drugs and economic damage. COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need for effective molecules. Clinically proven efficacy and safety profiles have made favipiravir (FVP) and remdesivir (RDV) promising therapeutic options for use against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Even though both are prodrug molecules with an antiviral role based on a similar mechanism of action, differences in pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacotoxicological mechanisms have been identified. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive comparative assessment of FVP and RDV against SARS-CoV-2 infections, by centralizing medical data provided by significant literature and authorized clinical trials, focusing on the importance of a better understanding of the interactions between drug molecules and infectious agents in order to improve the global management of COVID-19 patients and to reduce the risk of antiviral resistance.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 808: 152072, 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550061

ABSTRACT

The combat against the Corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has created a chaos among the healthcare institutions and researchers, in turn accelerating the dire need to curtail the infection spread. The already established entry mechanism, via ACE2 has not yet successfully aided in the development of a suitable and reliable therapy. Taking in account the constant progression and deterioration of the cases worldwide, a different perspective and mechanistic approach is required, which has thrown light onto the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein, as a novel route for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Despite lesser affinity towards COVID-19 virus, as compared to ACE2, this receptor provides a suitable justification behind elevated blood glucose levels in infected patients, retarded COVID-19 risk in women, enhanced susceptibility in geriatrics, greater infection susceptibility of T cells, infection prevalence in non-susceptible human cardiac pericytes and so on. The manuscript invokes the title role and distribution of CD147 in COVID-19 as an entry receptor and mediator of endocytosis-promoted entry of the virus, along with the "catch and clump" hypothesis, thereby presenting its Fundamental significance as a therapeutic target for potential candidates, such as Azithromycin, melatonin, statins, beta adrenergic blockers, ivermectin, Meplazumab etc. Thus, the authors provide a comprehensive review of a different perspective in COVID-19 infection, aiming to aid the researchers and virologists in considering all aspects of viral entry, in order to develop a sustainable and potential cure for the 2019 COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Basigin , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Cell Differentiation , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(18): 26775-26791, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544548

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly growing pandemic that requires urgent therapeutic intervention. Finding potential anti COVID-19 drugs aside from approved vaccines is progressively going on. The chemically diverse natural products represent valuable sources for drug leads. In this study, we aimed to find out safe and effective COVID-19 protease inhibitors from a library of natural products which share the main nucleus/skeleton of FDA-approved drugs that were employed in COVID-19 treatment guidelines or repurposed by previous studies. Our library was subjected to virtual screening against SARS-CoV Main protease (Mpro) using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software. Twenty-two out of those natural candidates showed higher binding scores compared to their analogues. We repurpose these natural products including alkaloids, glucosinolates, and phenolics as potential platforms for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. This study paves the way towards discovering a lead used in the treatment of COVID-19 from natural sources and introduces phytomedicines with dual therapeutic effects against COVID-19 besides their original pharmacological effects. We recommend further in vitro evaluation of their anti-COVID-19 activity and future clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(6): 8109-8125, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540257

ABSTRACT

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that is produced by the lymphoid cells and plays a major role in immunological functions for controlling the homeostasis of the immune system. VIP has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory factor, in boosting both innate and adaptive immunity. Since December 2019, SARS-Cov-2 was found responsible for the disease COVID-19 which has spread worldwide. No specific therapies or 100% effective vaccines are yet available for the treatment of COVID-19. Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and several drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and tocilizumab. This paper describes the main pharmacological properties of synthetic VIP drug (Aviptadil) which is now under clinical trials. A patented formulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), named RLF-100 (Aviptadil), was developed and finally got approved for human trials by FDA in 2001 and in European medicines agency in 2005. It was awarded Orphan Drug Designation in 2001 by the US FDA for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome and for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in 2005. Investigational new drug (IND) licenses for human trials of Aviptadil was guaranteed by both the US FDA and EMEA. Preliminary clinical trials seem to support Aviptadil's benefit. However, such drugs like Aviptadil in COVID-19 patients have peculiar safety profiles. Thus, adequate clinical trials are necessary for these compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Drug Combinations , Humans , Phentolamine , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 583: 14-21, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471891

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has a major effect on world health, particularly on individuals suffering from severe diseases or old aged persons. Various case studies revealed that COVID-19 might increase the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Coxsackievirus, dengue virus Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, West Nile virus, and human immunodeficiency virus have all been linked to the development of transient or permanent parkinsonism, owing to the induction of neuroinflammation/hypoxic brain injury with structural/functional damage within the basal ganglia. Coronavirus mainly infects the alveolar cells and may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells via the ACE2 receptor, which is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where the virus may precipitate or accelerate dementia. SARS-CoV-2 could enter the central nervous system directly by the olfactory/vagus nerves or through the bloodstream. Here, we talked about the importance of this viral infection in terms of the CNS as well as its implications for people with Parkinson's disease; anosmia & olfaction-related impairments in COVID-19 & PD patients. And, also discussed the role of vitamin D to sustain the progression of Parkinson's disease and the COVID-19; regular vitamin D3 consumption of 2000-5000 IU/day may reduce the risk and severity of COVID-19 in parkinsonian patients.

14.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430776

ABSTRACT

The worldwide transmission of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a deadly or devastating disease is known to affect thousands of people every day, many of them dying all over the planet. The main reason for the massive effect of COVID-19 on society is its unpredictable spread, which does not allow for proper planning or management of this disease. Antibiotics, antivirals, and other prescription drugs, necessary and used in therapy, obviously have side effects (minor or significant) on the affected person, there are still not clear enough studies to elucidate their combined effect in this specific treatment, and existing protocols are sometimes unclear and uncertain. In contrast, it has been found that nutraceuticals, supplements, and various herbs can be effective in reducing the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also in alleviating COVID-19 symptoms. However, not enough specific details are yet available, and precise scientific studies to validate the approved benefits of natural food additives, probiotics, herbs, and nutraceuticals will need to be standardized according to current regulations. These alternative treatments may not have a direct effect on the virus or reduce the risk of infection with it, but these products certainly stimulate the human immune system so that the body is better prepared to fight the disease. This paper aims at a specialized literary foray precisely in the field of these "cures" that can provide real revelations in the therapy of coronavirus infection.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 18(10)2020 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389432

ABSTRACT

For a long time, algal chemistry from terrestrial to marine or freshwater bodies, especially chlorophytes, has fascinated numerous investigators to develop new drugs in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. As such, chlorophytes comprise a diverse structural class of secondary metabolites, having functional groups that are specific to a particular source. All bioactive compounds of chlorophyte are of great interest due to their supplemental/nutritional/pharmacological activities. In this review, a detailed description of the chemical diversity of compounds encompassing alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, fatty acids and glycerides, their subclasses and their structures are discussed. These promising natural products have efficiency in developing new drugs necessary in the treatment of various deadly pathologies (cancer, HIV, SARS-CoV-2, several inflammations, etc.). Marine chlorophyte, therefore, is portrayed as a pivotal treasure in the case of drugs having marine provenience. It is a domain of research expected to probe novel pharmaceutically or nutraceutically important secondary metabolites resulting from marine Chlorophyta. In this regard, our review aims to compile the isolated secondary metabolites having diverse chemical structures from chlorophytes (like Caulerpa ssp., Ulva ssp., Tydemania ssp., Penicillus ssp., Codium ssp., Capsosiphon ssp., Avrainvillea ssp.), their biological properties, applications and possible mode of action.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlorophyta/chemistry , Chlorophyta/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305767

ABSTRACT

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266745

ABSTRACT

With advanced technology and its development, bioinformatics is one of the avant-garde fields that has managed to make amazing progress in the pharmaceutical-medical field by modeling the infrastructural dimensions of healthcare and integrating computing tools in drug innovation, facilitating prevention, detection/more accurate diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, while saving time and money. By association, bioinformatics and pharmacovigilance promoted both sample analyzes and interpretation of drug side effects, also focusing on drug discovery and development (DDD), in which systems biology, a personalized approach, and drug repositioning were considered together with translational medicine. The role of bioinformatics has been highlighted in DDD, proteomics, genetics, modeling, miRNA discovery and assessment, and clinical genome sequencing. The authors have collated significant data from the most known online databases and publishers, also narrowing the diversified applications, in order to target four major areas (tetrad): DDD, anti-microbial research, genomic sequencing, and miRNA research and its significance in the management of current pandemic context. Our analysis aims to provide optimal data in the field by stratification of the information related to the published data in key sectors and to capture the attention of researchers interested in bioinformatics, a field that has succeeded in advancing the healthcare paradigm by introducing developing techniques and multiple database platforms, addressed in the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , MicroRNAs , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing , Animals , COVID-19 , Drug Industry , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , Public Health
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 463-481, sept. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1264799

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a phenolic phytoconstituent found in many plants. This molecule has always caught the attention of scientists because of biological potentials such as inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress and platelet aggregation as well as to prevent/protect against cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease/disorders. Literature search have been conducted over resveratrol in covid-19 and asthma studies published in Pubmed and Google Scholars until 30 September 2020. The criteria used in the literature review were determined and were reviewed works on resveratrol including 368 articles and 47 articles on covid-19 and asthma, respectively. As a result of meta-analysis, TNF-α values of the studies showed a significant difference (heterogeneity) of I2=68.39% from each other in total (Cohran Q:6.33, p<0.0423). This study shows that resveratrol would have a potential to reduce ARDS symptoms, by suppressing the cytokine storm and severe inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2, and by showing strong activity against various types of DNA/RNA viruses.


El resveratrol es un fitoconstituyente fenólico que se encuentra en muchas plantas. Esta molécula siempre ha llamado la atención de los científicos debido a sus potenciales biológicos como la inhibición de la inflamación, el estrés oxidativo y la agregación plaquetaria, así como para prevenir/proteger contra enfermedades/trastornos cardiovasculares y neurodegenerativos. Se han realizado búsquedas bibliográficas sobre resveratrol en covid-19 y estudios sobre asma publicados en Pubmed y Google Scholars hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2020. Se determinaron los criterios utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y se revisaron trabajos sobre resveratrol que incluyen 368 artículos y 47 artículos sobre covid-19 y asma, respectivamente. Como resultado del metanálisis, los valores de TNF-α de los estudios mostraron una diferencia significativa (heterogeneidad) de I2=68,39% entre sí en total (Cohran Q: 6,33, p<0,0423). Este estudio muestra que el resveratrol podría reducir los síntomas del ARDS al suprimir la tormenta de citocinas y la inflamación severa causada por el SARS-CoV-2, y al mostrar una fuerte actividad contra varios tipos de virus de ADN/ARN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/drug therapy , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/prevention & control , Asthma/complications , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/complications
19.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(6): 648, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222243

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is responsible for generating a global effort to discover urgent therapeutic solutions to limit the human damage caused by COVID-19. In the period of April to June 2020, 105 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 met the conditions for inclusion in the present study. They were treated with antiviral therapy according to local guidelines: D group (53 cases), treated with darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r); and K group (52 cases), treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Patients from the K group required 7.5 days of hospitalization less compared to those from the D group (P<0.001). The blood oxygen saturation values recorded in the groups were statistically different [K group (94.02±3.12%) vs. D group (92.13±4.24%), P=0.010]. The percentage of patients with unsatisfactory clinical evolution were non-significantly higher in the D group compared with the K group [20 (37.74%) vs. 12 (23.08%), P=0.157]. We did not note statistically significant differences between the two groups tracked considering the values for the Brescia-COVID Respiratory Severity Scale (BCRSS) of the patients with unsatisfactory clinical evolution, nor of the chest CT' evolution after 10 days of therapy. We did not register significant adverse effects after antiviral therapy in the two groups. Antiviral therapy with LPV/r had some favorable results compared to DRV/r in patients with COVID-19. Both therapies were well tolerated.

20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016197

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, humanity faces one of the most serious health crises, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is related to the high rate of interhuman transmission of the virus, variability of clinical presentation, and the absence of specific therapeutic methods. COVID-19 can manifest with non-specific symptoms and signs, especially among the elderly. In some cases, the clinical manifestations of hyponatremia may be the first to appear. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatremia among patients with COVID-19 are diverse, including syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), digestive loss of sodium ions, reduced sodium ion intake or use of diuretic therapy. Hyponatremia may also be considered a negative prognostic factor in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We need further studies to evaluate the etiology and therapeutic management of hyponatremia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diuretics/adverse effects , Fluid Therapy/methods , Humans , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/etiology , Incidence , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Sodium, Dietary
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