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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 734689, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354868

ABSTRACT

The response to anti-SARS-Cov-2 preventive vaccine shows high interpersonal variability at short and medium term. One of the explanations might be the individual HLA allelic variants. Indeed, B cell response is stimulated and sustained by CD4+ T helper cells activated by antigens presented by HLA-class II alleles on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The impact of the number of antigens binding to HLA class-II alleles on the antibody response to the COVID vaccine has been assessed in a cohort of 56 healthcare workers who received the full schedule of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine. Such vaccine is based on the entire spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2. Ab titers have been evaluated 2 weeks after the first dose as well as 2 weeks and 4 months after the boosting dose. HLA-DRB1 and DBQ1 for each of the vaccinees have been assessed, and strong binders have been predicted. The analysis showed no significant correlation between the short-medium-term Ab titers and the number of strong binders (SB) for each individual. These results indicate that levels of Ab response to the spike glycoprotein is not dependent on HLA class II allele, suggesting an equivalent efficacy at global level of the currently used vaccines. Furthermore, the pattern of persistence in Ab titer does not correlate with specific alleles or with the number of SBs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HLA-D Antigens/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15(1): 69, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965787

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic following the outbreak in China and Western Europe, where it finally lost the momentum, is now devastating North and South America. It has not been identified the reason and the molecular mechanisms of the two different patterns of the pulmonary host responses to the virus from a minimal disease in young subjects to a severe distress syndrome (ARDS) in older subjects, particularly those with previous chronic diseases (including diabetes) and cancer. The Management of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" in Naples (INT-Pascale), along with all Health professionals decided not to interrupt the treatment of those hospitalized and to continue, even if after a careful triage in order not to allow SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects to access, to take care of cancer patients with serious conditions. Although very few (n = 3) patients developed a symptomatic COVID-19 and required the transfer to a COVID-19 area of the Institute, no patients died during the hospitalization and completed their oncology treatment. Besides monitoring of the patients, all employees of the Institute (physicians, nurses, researchers, lawyers, accountants, gatekeepers, guardians, janitors) have been tested for a possible exposure. Personnel identified as positive, has been promptly subjected to home quarantine and subdued to health surveillance. One severe case of respiratory distress has been reported in a positive employees and one death of a family member. Further steps to home monitoring of COVID-19 clinical course have been taken with the development of remote Wi-Fi connected digital devices for the detection of early signs of respiratory distress, including heart rate and oxygen saturation.In conclusion cancer care has been performed and continued safely also during COVID-19 pandemic and further remote home strategies are in progress to ensure the appropriate monitoring of cancer patients.

4.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 32, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245089

ABSTRACT

The new human coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense RNA virus for which no specific drugs are currently available. A knowledge-based analysis strongly suggests a possible repositioning of the anti-HCV direct antiviral agent (DAA) Sofosbuvir as treatment for SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RdRp) of the two viruses show high sequence and structural homology, supporting the likelihood of binding the Sofosbuvir molecule with similar efficiency. Such a repositioning would allow the containment of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and limit the progression of disease to potentially deadly COVID19.

5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 185, 2020 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175840

ABSTRACT

A new human coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 was identified in several cases of acute respiratory syndrome in Wuhan, China in December 2019. On March 11 2020, WHO declared the SARS-CoV-2 infection to be a pandemic, based on the involvement of 169 nations. Specific drugs for SARS-CoV-2 are obviously not available. Currently, drugs originally developed for other viruses or parasites are currently in clinical trials based on empiric data. In the quest of an effective antiviral drug, the most specific target for an RNA virus is the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) which shows significant differences between positive-sense and negative-sense RNA viruses. An accurate evaluation of RdRps from different viruses may guide the development of new drugs or the repositioning of already approved antiviral drugs as treatment of SARS-CoV-2. This can accelerate the containment of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and, hopefully, of future pandemics due to other emerging zoonotic RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
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