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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820404

ABSTRACT

Recent research using UV radiation with wavelengths in the 200-235 nm range, often referred to as far-UVC, suggests that the minimal health hazard associated with these wavelengths will allow direct use of far-UVC radiation within occupied indoor spaces to provide continuous disinfection. Earlier experimental studies estimated the susceptibility of airborne human coronavirus OC43 exposed to 222-nm radiation based on fitting an exponential dose-response curve to the data. The current study extends the results to a wider range of doses of 222 nm far-UVC radiation and uses a computational model coupling radiation transport and computational fluid dynamics to improve dosimetry estimates. The new results suggest that the inactivation of human coronavirus OC43 within our exposure system is better described using a bi-exponential dose-response relation, and the estimated susceptibility constant at low doses-the relevant parameter for realistic low dose rate exposures-was 12.4 ± 0.4 cm2/mJ, which described the behavior of 99.7% ± 0.05% of the virus population. This new estimate is more than double the earlier susceptibility constant estimates that were based on a single-exponential dose response. These new results offer further evidence as to the efficacy of far-UVC to inactivate airborne pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Disinfection/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation
2.
Viruses ; 14(4):684, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762725

ABSTRACT

Recent research using UV radiation with wavelengths in the 200–235 nm range, often referred to as far-UVC, suggests that the minimal health hazard associated with these wavelengths will allow direct use of far-UVC radiation within occupied indoor spaces to provide continuous disinfection. Earlier experimental studies estimated the susceptibility of airborne human coronavirus OC43 exposed to 222-nm radiation based on fitting an exponential dose–response curve to the data. The current study extends the results to a wider range of doses of 222 nm far-UVC radiation and uses a computational model coupling radiation transport and computational fluid dynamics to improve dosimetry estimates. The new results suggest that the inactivation of human coronavirus OC43 within our exposure system is better described using a bi-exponential dose–response relation, and the estimated susceptibility constant at low doses-the relevant parameter for realistic low dose rate exposures-was 12.4 ±0.4 cm2/mJ, which described the behavior of 99.7% ±0.05% of the virus population. This new estimate is more than double the earlier susceptibility constant estimates that were based on a single-exponential dose response. These new results offer further evidence as to the efficacy of far-UVC to inactivate airborne pathogens.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4373, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758367

ABSTRACT

Many infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are transmitted by airborne pathogens. There is a need for effective environmental control measures which, ideally, are not reliant on human behaviour. One potential solution is Krypton Chloride (KrCl) excimer lamps (often referred to as Far-UVC), which can efficiently inactivate pathogens, such as coronaviruses and influenza, in air. Research demonstrates that when KrCl lamps are filtered to remove longer-wavelength ultraviolet emissions they do not induce acute reactions in the skin or eyes, nor delayed effects such as skin cancer. While there is laboratory evidence for Far-UVC efficacy, there is limited evidence in full-sized rooms. For the first time, we show that Far-UVC deployed in a room-sized chamber effectively inactivates aerosolised Staphylococcus aureus. At a room ventilation rate of 3 air-changes-per-hour (ACH), with 5 filtered-sources the steady-state pathogen load was reduced by 98.4% providing an additional 184 equivalent air changes (eACH). This reduction was achieved using Far-UVC irradiances consistent with current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit values for skin for a continuous 8-h exposure. Our data indicate that Far-UVC is likely to be more effective against common airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, than bacteria and should thus be an effective and "hands-off" technology to reduce airborne disease transmission. The findings provide room-scale data to support the design and development of effective Far-UVC systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Staphylococcal Infections , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309856

ABSTRACT

Many infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are transmitted by airborne pathogens. There is a need for effective environmental control measures which, ideally, are not reliant on human behaviour. One potential solution is Far-UVC which can efficiently inactivate pathogens, such as coronaviruses and influenza, in air. When appropriately filtered, and because of its limited penetration, there is evidence that Far-UVC does not induce acute reactions in the skin or eyes, nor delayed effects such as skin cancer. While there is laboratory evidence for far-UVC efficacy, there is limited evidence in full-sized rooms. In the first study of its type, we show that Far-UVC deployed in a room-sized chamber effectively inactivates aerosolised Staphylococcus aureus . At a room ventilation rate of 3 air changes per hour (ACH), with 5 filtered sources the steady-state pathogen load was reduced by 92.1% providing an additional 35 equivalent air changes (eACH). This reduction was achieved using Far-UVC intensities consistent with current regulatory limits. Far-UVC is likely to be more effective against common airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and should thus be an effective and “hands-off” technology to reduce airborne disease transmission. The findings provide room-scale data to support the design and development of safe and effective Far-UVC systems.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307474

ABSTRACT

A direct approach to limit airborne transmission of pathogens is to inactivate them within a short time of their production. Germicidal ultraviolet light (UV), typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context, but it is a health hazard to the skin and eyes. By contrast, far-UVC light (207-222 nm) efficiently kills pathogens without harm to exposed human cells or tissues. We previously demonstrated that 222-nm UV light efficiently kills airborne influenza virus (H1N1);here we extend the far-UVC studies to explore efficacy against human coronaviruses from subgroups alpha (HCoV-229E) and beta (HCoV-OC43). We found that low doses of, respectively 1.7 and 1.2 mJ/cm 2 inactivated 99.9% of aerosolized alpha coronavirus 229E and beta coronavirus OC43. Based on these results for the beta HCoV-OC43 coronavirus, continuous far-UVC exposure in public locations at the currently recommended exposure limit (3 mJ/cm 2 /hour) would result in 99.9% viral inactivation in ~ 25 minutes. Increasing the far- UVC intensity by, say, a factor of 2 would halve these disinfection times, while still maintaining safety. As all human coronaviruses have similar genomic size, a key determinant of radiation sensitivity, it is realistic to expect that far-UVC light will show comparable inactivation efficiency against other human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10285, 2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617064

ABSTRACT

A direct approach to limit airborne viral transmissions is to inactivate them within a short time of their production. Germicidal ultraviolet light, typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context but, used directly, can be a health hazard to skin and eyes. By contrast, far-UVC light (207-222 nm) efficiently kills pathogens potentially without harm to exposed human tissues. We previously demonstrated that 222-nm far-UVC light efficiently kills airborne influenza virus and we extend those studies to explore far-UVC efficacy against airborne human coronaviruses alpha HCoV-229E and beta HCoV-OC43. Low doses of 1.7 and 1.2 mJ/cm2 inactivated 99.9% of aerosolized coronavirus 229E and OC43, respectively. As all human coronaviruses have similar genomic sizes, far-UVC light would be expected to show similar inactivation efficiency against other human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Based on the beta-HCoV-OC43 results, continuous far-UVC exposure in occupied public locations at the current regulatory exposure limit (~3 mJ/cm2/hour) would result in ~90% viral inactivation in ~8 minutes, 95% in ~11 minutes, 99% in ~16 minutes and 99.9% inactivation in ~25 minutes. Thus while staying within current regulatory dose limits, low-dose-rate far-UVC exposure can potentially safely provide a major reduction in the ambient level of airborne coronaviruses in occupied public locations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus Infections/radiotherapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , SARS Virus/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2
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