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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736819

ABSTRACT

In recent years, fake scientific news has spread much faster through the Internet and social media within the so-called "infodemic". African Swine Fever (ASF) is a perfect case study to prove how fake news can undermine the public health response, even in the veterinary field. ASF is a highly contagious infective disease affecting exclusively domestic and wild pigs such as wild boars. ASF can cause social damage and economic losses both directly (due to the high mortality rate) and indirectly (due to international sanctions). Although ASF is not a threat to human health, since 2018 newspapers have often reported false or misleading news, ranging from misinterpreted findings/data to fake or alarmistic news. In some cases, fake news was spread, such as the use of snipers at the border of nations to kill wild boars, or those reports concerning possible risks to human health. In order to provide real and fact-based news on epidemics, some organizations have created easy-to-read infographic and iconographic materials, available on their websites, to help the readers identifying the fake news. Indeed, it is crucial that governments and scientific organizations work against fear and anxiety, using simple and clear communication.

2.
Res Vet Sci ; 144: 190-195, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521511

ABSTRACT

Severe clinical diseases associated to αCoronavirus (αCoV) infections were recently demonstrated for the first time in humans and a closely related but distinct canine CoV (CCoV) variant was identified in the nasopharyngeal swabs of children with pneumonia hospitalized in Malaysia, in 2017-2018. The complete genome sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated strain, CCoV-HuPn-2018, was a novel canine-feline-like recombinant virus with a unique nucleoprotein. The occurrence of three human epidemics/pandemic caused by CoVs in the recent years and the detection of CCoV-HuPn-2018, raises questions about the ability of these viruses to overcome species barriers from their reservoirs jumping to humans. Interestingly, in this perspective, it is interesting to consider the report concerning new CCoV strains with a potential dual recombinant origin through partial S-gene exchange with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) identified in pups died with acute gastroenteritis in 2009. The significance of the ability of CCoVs to evolve is still unclear, but several questions arisen on the biology of these viruses, focusing important epidemiological outcomes in the field, in terms of both virus evolution and prophylaxis. The new CCoV-Hupn-2018 should lead researchers to pay more attention to the mechanisms of recombination among CoVs, rather than to the onset of variants as a result of mutations, suggesting a continuous monitoring of these viruses and in particular of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Biology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381142

ABSTRACT

We monitored the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody response in seven dogs and two cats by using two multispecies ELISA tests, plaque reduction neutralisation test and virus neutralization. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in pets persisted up to 10 months since the first positive testing, thus replicating observations in COVID-19 human patients.

4.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114214, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263336

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA virus responsible for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that represents a global health threat, causing an ongoing pandemic in many countries and territories. WHO recommendations emphasize the importance of all personal protective equipment (PPE) that can interrupt COVID-19 transmission. The textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of or treatment with various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. Methods for determining the antiviral activity of fabrics are reported in the International Standards Organization (ISO) 18184 (2019) guidelines. Three different fabric samples treated with silver derivate, copper derivative and a not treated cotton fabric used as control were examined and put in contact with a suspension of feline coronavirus (FCoV). After 2 h of incubation a significant decrease of viral titer, as high as 3.25 log10 Tissue Culture Infectious Dose (TCID)50/50 µl, in feline cells was observed in treated fabrics, with respect to not treated fabrics. In this study, we optimized laboratory methods to evaluate the virucidal activity of silver- and copper treated cotton- based fabrics against coronavirus, using FCoV suitable as a surrogate of SARS-CoV-2 but safe for laboratory technicians.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Textiles , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/pharmacology , Viral Load/drug effects
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 44-47, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199055

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal systemic disease of felids caused by a Coronavirus (CoV) (FIPV). In spite of its clinical relevance and impact on feline health, currently the therapeutic possibilities for treatment of FIP in cats are limited. The emergence of the pandemic Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), able to infect a broad spectrum of animal species including cats, triggered the interest for the development of novel molecules with antiviral activity for treatment of CoV infections in humans and animals. Essential oils (EOs) have raised significant attention for their antiviral properties integrating and, in some cases, replacing conventional drugs. Thymus vulgaris EO (TEO) has been previously shown to be effective against several RNA viruses including CoVs. In the present study the antiviral efficacy of TEO against FIPV was evaluated in vitro. TEO at 27 µg/ml was able to inhibit virus replication with a significant reduction of 2 log10 TCID50/50 µl. Moreover, virucidal activity was tested using TEO at 27 and 270 µg/ml, over the cytotoxic threshold, determining a reduction of viral titre as high as 3.25 log10 TCID50/50 µl up to 1 h of time contact. These results open several perspectives in terms of future applications and therapeutic possibilities for coronaviruses considering that FIPV infection in cats could be a potential model for the study of antivirals against CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cats , Cell Line , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 450-455, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909188

ABSTRACT

BRD is associated with infectious agents, but management and transport-stress are trigger factors. Metaphylactic administration of antimicrobial reduces colonization of respiratory tract by pathogens, but the development of antibiotic-resistance raises public health concerns leading to propose new control strategies. The study analyzed nasopharyngeal swabs of 231 imported cattle, 10% of 49 trucks, transported from France to southern Italy and, through Real-time PCR identified the prevalence of the involved pathogens speculating on strategies to reduce the impact of BRD. The samples were tested by Real-time PCR, for the detection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus (BPiV), bovine adenovirus (BAdV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Yates-corrected chi squared, or Fisher's exact test were used to compare both animal-health status and positivity/negativity to pathogens, and the relationship between presence/absence of clinical signs and Real-time PCR-positivity. H. somni and BCoV were the most frequently identified pathogens. In BRD-diagnosed cattle, BAdV was detected in 13.8% (19/138), BRSV in 14.5% (20/138) and BPiV in 4.3% (6/138). Healthy cattle were mostly positive for H. somni (89.2%, 83/93). A statistically significant association was observed between clinical signs and positivity to M. haemolytica (p value = 0.016). Although mass-medication and vaccination are used for BRD control, it still remains a primary health problem. Our results highlight that the nasopharyngeal microbiota could be affected by transport and that strategies to enhance calf immunity for reducing BRD-risk development would be more effective if applied at farm of origin prior to loading.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Microbiota , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , France/epidemiology , Immunity , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pasteurellaceae/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , Transportation
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