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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957368

ABSTRACT

During this pandemic, the lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging modality has shown promising results as a diagnostic, prognostic and monitoring tool for COVID-19 patients [...].

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(8): 663-665, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948550

ABSTRACT

We describe 3 children with new-onset neurocognitive problems after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), that showed, at the brain [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, hypometabolism in the left orbito-frontal region. The voxel-wise analysis confirmed a cluster of hypometabolic voxels in this region with a peak at -18/46/-4mm (179 voxels, T-Score 8.1). These findings may explain neurocognitive symptoms that some children develop after COVID-19 and require further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
3.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 884962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2) pandemic has forced the global health system to face new challenges both in the acute management of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) patients and in its consequences. In particular, the long-term effects of this new virus, especially in children, are still poorly understood. Scientific research is currently trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the so called "long COVID syndrome". Since the beginning of the pandemic, breastmilk has been studied for its antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Based on these assumptions, we conducted a preliminary study in order to investigate the prevalence of long COVID in a cohort of Italian children with previously detected SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluate if breastfeeding might play a role in modulating long COVID occurrence.

4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 244, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae in adults and children were performed in the absence of an agreed definition. We investigated prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) (WHO definition), at 6- and 12-months follow-up, amongst previously hospitalised adults and children and assessed risk factors. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of children and adults with confirmed COVID-19 in Moscow, hospitalised between April and August, 2020. Two follow-up telephone interviews, using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium survey, were performed at 6 and 12 months after discharge. RESULTS: One thousand thirteen of 2509 (40%) of adults and 360 of 849 (42%) of children discharged participated in both the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. PCC prevalence was 50% (95% CI 47-53) in adults and 20% (95% CI 16-24) in children at 6 months, with decline to 34% (95% CI 31-37) and 11% (95% CI 8-14), respectively, at 12 months. In adults, female sex was associated with PCC at 6- and 12-month follow-up (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.65) and (OR 2.04, 1.54 to 2.69), respectively. Pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.42, 1.04 to 1.94) was associated with post-COVID-19 condition at 12 months. In children, neurological comorbidities were associated with PCC both at 6 months (OR 4.38, 1.36 to 15.67) and 12 months (OR 8.96, 2.55 to 34.82) while allergic respiratory diseases were associated at 12 months (OR 2.66, 1.04 to 6.47). CONCLUSIONS: Although prevalence of PCC declined one year after discharge, one in three adults and one in ten children experienced ongoing sequelae. In adults, females and persons with pre-existing hypertension, and in children, persons with neurological comorbidities or allergic respiratory diseases are at higher risk of PCC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Moscow/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Children (Basel) ; 9(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917313

ABSTRACT

The immune system was, and still is, the protagonist of this pandemic [...].

6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911292

ABSTRACT

Background. To evaluate relationships between lung aeration assessed by lung ultrasound (LUS) with viscoelastic profiles obtained by thromboelastography (TEG) in COVID-19 respiratory failure. Methods. Retrospective analysis in a tertiary ICU in Rome, Italy. Forty invasively ventilated adults with COVID-19 underwent LUS and TEG assessment. A simplified LUS protocol consisting in scanning six areas, three per side, was adopted. A score from 0 to 3 was assigned to each area. TEG®6s was used to obtain viscoelastic hemostatic assay parameters which were compared to LUS score. Results. There was a significant inverse correlation between LUS score and static compliance of the respiratory system (Crs, rs -0.75; p < 0.001). We found a significant association between LUS and functional fibrinogen maximum amplitude (FF-MA): among 18 patients with LUS score ≤ 12, median FF-MA was 31 mm [IQR 28-39] whilst, among 22 patients with LUS score > 12, it was 46.3 mm [IQR 40-53], p = 0.0004. Median of the citrated recalcified kaolin-activated maximum amplitude (CK-MA) was 66.1 mm [64.4-68] in the LUS score ≤ 12 group, and 69.6 [68.5-70.7] when LUS score > 12, p < 0.002. Conclusions. The hypercoagulable profile as defined by elevated FF-MA and CK-MA may be associated with a low degree of lung aeration as assessed by LUS.

8.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 790518, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896729

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, type of delivery, and neonatal feeding of pregnant women with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection during gestation. Study Design: The study was conducted online, and anonymous survey was distributed to mothers that delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The survey was completed by 286 women, and 64 women (22.4%) had COVID-19 during pregnancy. Women that had SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy or at time of delivery had a significantly higher probability of being separated from the newborn (p < 0.0001) and a significantly lower probability of breastfeeding (p < 0.0001). The Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale, to assess if mothers had symptoms of postnatal depression, showed that items suggestive of postnatal depression were relatively frequent in the whole cohort. However, women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy reported higher probability of responses suggestive of postnatal depression in eight out of 10 items, with statistically significant differences in three items. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the type of delivery and breastfeeding of pregnant women, particularly when they had SARS-CoV-2 infection. This, in turn, had an impact on the psychological status of the interviewed mothers, aspects that could benefit of special support.

9.
Children ; 9(7):931, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1893890

ABSTRACT

Objective and design: Following COVID-19 infection, children can develop an hyperinflammatory state termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Lung Ultrasound (LUS) features of COVID-19 in children have been described, but data describing the LUS findings of MIS-C are limited. The aim of this retrospective observational study conducted between 1 March and 31 December 2020, at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Milano, is to describe LUS patterns in patients with MIS-C and to verify correlation with illness severity. The secondary objective is to evaluate concordance of LUS with Chest X-Ray (CXR). Methodology: Clinical and laboratory data were collected for all patients (age 0–18 years) admitted with MIS-C, as well as LUS and CXR patterns at admission. PICU admission, needed for respiratory support and inotrope administration, hospital, and PICU length of stay, were considered as outcomes and evaluated in the different LUS patterns. An agreement between LUS and CXR evaluation was assessed with Cohen' k. Results: 24 children, who had a LUS examination upon admission, were enrolled. LUS pattern of subpleural consolidations < or > 1 cm with or without pleural effusion were associated with worse Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction at admission and need for inotropes. Subpleural consolidations < 1 cm were also associated with PICU length of stay. Agreement of CXR with LUS for consolidations and effusion was slight. Conclusion: LUS pattern of subpleural consolidations and consolidations with or without pleural effusion are predictors of disease severity;under this aspect, LUS can be used at admission to stratify risk of severe disease.

10.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1887648

ABSTRACT

Reliable testing methods for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children are essential to allow normal activities. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is currently based on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs;concerns have been raised regarding NP swab accuracy in children to detect the virus because of potential lack of cooperation of the patients or due to general uncertainties about concordance between high and low respiratory tract specimens in children. The aim of the study (IRB approval: ST/2020/405) is to prospectively compare RT-PCR results on NP and tracheo-bronchial aspirate (TA) in children admitted to the hospital for surgery or admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary children hospital in Milano, Italy, during a peak of COVID-19 infections in the city. A total of 385 patients were enrolled in the study: 364 from surgical theater and 21 from PICU. Two patients (0.5%) tested positive on TA and were negative on NP;both cases occurred in November 2020, during a peak of infection in the city. Specificity of NP swab was.995 (95% CI: 0.980–0.999). Two patients with positive NP swabs tested negative on TA. Conclusion Our study shows that the specificity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on TA swab, compared to results of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on NP, was very high for negative cases in our pediatric cohort during a period of high epidemiological pressure.

11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(7): 628-629, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886190

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans
12.
Children (Basel) ; 9(5)2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875510

ABSTRACT

While the clinical impact of COVID-19 on adults has been massive, the majority of children develop pauci-symptomatic or even asymptomatic infection and only a minority of the latter develop a fatal outcome. The reasons of such differences are not yet established. We examined cytokines in sera and Th and B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 children (<18 years old), evaluating the impact of COVID-19 infection during the pandemic's first waves. We correlated our results with clinical symptoms and compared them to samples obtained from 16 infected adults and 7 healthy controls. While IL6 levels were lower in SARS-CoV-2+ children as compared to adult patients, the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα directly correlated with early age infection and symptoms. Th and B cell subsets were modified during pediatric infection differently with respect to adult patients and controls and within the pediatric group based on age. Low levels of IgD- CD27+ memory B cells correlated with absent/mild symptoms. On the contrary, high levels of FoxP3+/CD25high T-Regs associated with a moderate-severe clinical course in the childhood. These T and B cells subsets did not associate with severity in infected adults, with children showing a predominant expansion of immature B lymphocytes and natural regulatory T cells. This study shows differences in immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children compared with adults. Moreover, these data could provide information that can drive vaccination endpoints for children.

13.
Wulf Hanson, Sarah, Abbafati, Cristiana, Aerts, Joachim, Al-Aly, Ziyad, Ashbaugh, Charlie, Ballouz, Tala, Blyuss, Oleg, Bobkova, Polina, Bonsel, Gouke, Borzakova, Svetlana, Buonsenso, Danilo, Butnaru, Denis, Carter, Austin, Chu, Helen, De Rose, Cristina, Diab, Mohamed Mustafa, Ekbom, Emil, El Tantawi, Maha, Fomin, Victor, Frithiof, Robert, Gamirova, Aysylu, Glybochko, Petr, Haagsma, Juanita, Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy, Hamilton, Erin, Harris, Gabrielle, Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka, Helbok, Raimund, Hellemons, Merel, Hillus, David, Huijts, Susanne, Hultström, Michael, Jassat, Waasila, Kurth, Florian, Larsson, Ing-Marie, Lipcsey, Miklós, Liu, Chelsea, Loflin, Callan, Malinovschi, Andrei, Mao, Wenhui, Mazankova, Lyudmila, McCulloch, Denise, Menges, Dominik, Mohammadifard, Noushin, Munblit, Daniel, Nekliudov, Nikita, Ogbuoji, Osondu, Osmanov, Ismail, Peñalvo, José, Petersen, Maria Skaalum, Puhan, Milo, Rahman, Mujibur, Rass, Verena, Reinig, Nickolas, Ribbers, Gerard, Ricchiuto, Antonia, Rubertsson, Sten, Samitova, Elmira, Sarrafzadegan, Nizal, Shikhaleva, Anastasia, Simpson, Kyle, Sinatti, Dario, Soriano, Joan, Spiridonova, Ekaterina, Steinbeis, Fridolin, Svistunov, Andrey, Valentini, Piero, van de Water, Brittney, van den Berg-Emons, Rita, Wallin, Ewa, Witzenrath, Martin, Wu, Yifan, Xu, Hanzhang, Zoller, Thomas, Adolph, Christopher, Albright, James, Amlag, Joanne, Aravkin, Aleksandr, Bang-Jensen, Bree, Bisignano, Catherine, Castellano, Rachel, Castro, Emma, Chakrabarti, Suman, Collins, James, Dai, Xiaochen, Daoud, Farah, Dapper, Carolyn, Deen, Amanda, Duncan, Bruce, Erickson, Megan, Ewald, Samuel, Ferrari, Alize, Flaxman, Abraham, Fullman, Nancy, Gamkrelidze, Amiran, Giles, John, Guo, Gaorui, Hay, Simon, He, Jiawei, Helak, Monika, Hulland, Erin, Kereselidze, Maia, Krohn, Kris, Lazzar-Atwood, Alice, Lindstrom, Akiaja, Lozano, Rafael, Magistro, Beatrice, Malta, Deborah Carvalho, Månsson, Johan, Mantilla Herrera, Ana, Mokdad, Ali, Monasta, Lorenzo, Nomura, Shuhei, Pasovic, Maja, Pigott, David, Reiner, Robert, Reinke, Grace, Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz, Santomauro, Damian Francesco, Sholokhov, Aleksei, Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth, Walcott, Rebecca, Walker, Ally, Wiysonge, Charles Shey, Zheng, Peng, Bettger, Janet Prvu, Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337680

ABSTRACT

Importance While much of the attention on the COVID-19 pandemic was directed at the daily counts of cases and those with serious disease overwhelming health services, increasingly, reports have appeared of people who experience debilitating symptoms after the initial infection. This is popularly known as long COVID. Objective To estimate by country and territory of the number of patients affected by long COVID in 2020 and 2021, the severity of their symptoms and expected pattern of recovery Design We jointly analyzed ten ongoing cohort studies in ten countries for the occurrence of three major symptom clusters of long COVID among representative COVID cases. The defining symptoms of the three clusters (fatigue, cognitive problems, and shortness of breath) are explicitly mentioned in the WHO clinical case definition. For incidence of long COVID, we adopted the minimum duration after infection of three months from the WHO case definition. We pooled data from the contributing studies, two large medical record databases in the United States, and findings from 44 published studies using a Bayesian meta-regression tool. We separately estimated occurrence and pattern of recovery in patients with milder acute infections and those hospitalized. We estimated the incidence and prevalence of long COVID globally and by country in 2020 and 2021 as well as the severity-weighted prevalence using disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease study. Results Analyses are based on detailed information for 1906 community infections and 10526 hospitalized patients from the ten collaborating cohorts, three of which included children. We added published data on 37262 community infections and 9540 hospitalized patients as well as ICD-coded medical record data concerning 1.3 million infections. Globally, in 2020 and 2021, 144.7 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 54.8–312.9) people suffered from any of the three symptom clusters of long COVID. This corresponds to 3.69% (1.38–7.96) of all infections. The fatigue, respiratory, and cognitive clusters occurred in 51.0% (16.9–92.4), 60.4% (18.9–89.1), and 35.4% (9.4–75.1) of long COVID cases, respectively. Those with milder acute COVID-19 cases had a quicker estimated recovery (median duration 3.99 months [IQR 3.84–4.20]) than those admitted for the acute infection (median duration 8.84 months [IQR 8.10–9.78]). At twelve months, 15.1% (10.3–21.1) continued to experience long COVID symptoms. Conclusions and relevance The occurrence of debilitating ongoing symptoms of COVID-19 is common. Knowing how many people are affected, and for how long, is important to plan for rehabilitative services and support to return to social activities, places of learning, and the workplace when symptoms start to wane. Key Points Question What are the extent and nature of the most common long COVID symptoms by country in 2020 and 2021? Findings Globally, 144.7 million people experienced one or more of three symptom clusters (fatigue;cognitive problems;and ongoing respiratory problems) of long COVID three months after infection, in 2020 and 2021. Most cases arose from milder infections. At 12 months after infection, 15.1% of these cases had not yet recovered. Meaning The substantial number of people with long COVID are in need of rehabilitative care and support to transition back into the workplace or education when symptoms start to wane.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 834875, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834503

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging evidence shows that both adults and children may develop post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). The aim of this study is to characterise and compare long-term post-SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes in adults and children in a defined region in Italy. Methods: A prospective cohort study including children (≤18 years old) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household members. Participants were assessed via telephone and face-to-face visits up to 12 months post-SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis of household index case, using the ISARIC COVID-19 follow-up survey. Results: Of 507 participants from 201 households, 56.4% (286/507) were children, 43.6% (221/507) adults. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was 87% (249/286) in children, and 78% (172/221) in adults. The mean age of PCR positive children was 10.4 (SD = 4.5) and of PCR positive adults was 44.5 years (SD = 9.5), similar to the PCR negative control groups [children 10.5 years (SD = 3.24), adults 42.3 years (SD = 9.06)]. Median follow-up post-SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 77 days (IQR 47-169). A significantly higher proportion of adults compared to children reported at least one persistent symptom (67%, 68/101 vs. 32%, 57/179, p < 0.001) at the first follow up. Adults had more frequently coexistence of several symptom categories at both follow-up time-points. Female gender was identified as a risk factor for PASC in adults (p 0.02 at 1-3 months and p 0.01 at 6-9 months follow up), but not in children. We found no significant correlation between adults and children symptoms. In the paediatric group, there was a significant difference in persisting symptoms between those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to controls at 1-3 months follow up, but not at 6-9 months. Conversely, positive adults had a higher frequency of persisting symptoms at both follow-up assessments. Conclusion: Our data highlights that children can experience persistent multisystemic symptoms months after diagnosis of mild acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, although less frequently and less severely than co-habitant adults. There was no correlation between symptoms experienced by adults and children living in the same household. Our data highlights an urgent need for studies to characterise PASC in whole populations and the wider impact on families.

15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(3): 187-193, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834259

ABSTRACT

Background: Long COVID (coronavirus disease 2019) syndrome includes a group of patients who, after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit lingering mild-to-moderate symptoms and develop medical complications that can have lasting health problems. In this report, we propose a model for the pathophysiology of the long COVID presentation based on increased proinflammatory cytokine production that results from the persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus or one of its molecular components. Associated with this hyperproduction of inflammatory cytokines is a heightened activity of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways that regulate cytokine production. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to review the causes of long COVID syndrome and suggest ways that can provide a basis for a better understanding of the clinical symptomatology for the of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the condition. Methods: Extensive research was conducted in medical literature data bases by applying terms such as "long COVID" associated with "persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus" "spike protein' "COVID-19" and "biologic therapies." Results and Conclusions: In this model of the long COVID syndrome, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 is hypothesized to trigger a dysregulated immune system with subsequent heightened release of proinflammatory cytokines that lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and multiorgan symptomatology. The condition seems to have a genetic basis, which predisposes individuals to have a diminished immunologic capacity to completely clear the virus, with residual parts of the virus persisting. This persistence of virus and resultant hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines are proposed to form the basis of the syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819121

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812668

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, type of delivery, and neonatal feeding of pregnant women with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection during gestation. Study Design The study was conducted online, and anonymous survey was distributed to mothers that delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results The survey was completed by 286 women, and 64 women (22.4%) had COVID-19 during pregnancy. Women that had SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy or at time of delivery had a significantly higher probability of being separated from the newborn (p < 0.0001) and a significantly lower probability of breastfeeding (p < 0.0001). The Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale, to assess if mothers had symptoms of postnatal depression, showed that items suggestive of postnatal depression were relatively frequent in the whole cohort. However, women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy reported higher probability of responses suggestive of postnatal depression in eight out of 10 items, with statistically significant differences in three items. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic affected the type of delivery and breastfeeding of pregnant women, particularly when they had SARS-CoV-2 infection. This, in turn, had an impact on the psychological status of the interviewed mothers, aspects that could benefit of special support.

18.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 867968, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809485

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available on the attitudes of caregivers toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or Long Covid symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of children and adolescents with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to explore the possible associations between COVID-19 manifestations and the acceptance of the vaccine. Methods: Caregivers of children or adolescents with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated in two University Hospitals were interviewed. Results: We were able to contact 132 caregivers and 9 declined to participate. 68 caregivers (56%) were in favor of COVID-19 vaccination for their child. In the multiple logistic regression, child's age (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.28) and hospitalization due to COVID-19 (OR 3.25, 95%CI 1.06-9.95) were positively associated with being in favor of COVID-19 vaccination. On the contrary, the occurrence of child's Long Covid was associated with a higher likelihood of being against the vaccination (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.80). Conclusions: This preliminary study shows that only about half of the interviewed parents of children and adolescents with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection are willing to vaccinate them to prevent a repeated COVID-19 infection. These findings might help healthcare workers to provide tailored information to caregivers of children with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787303

ABSTRACT

Background There is increasing evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted childhood immunization services. However, detailed reports on immunizations and preventive antimalarial prophylactic treatments delivered and how the trends changed in referral centers in low-income countries are still missing. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data for vaccinations administered to children <5 years of age, according to the local vaccination schedule, were extracted from the official records of the Kent Community Health Post, Sierra Leone, in the period between April 2019 and March 2021. We compared the vaccinations performed in the first year, considered as a pre-Covid period, with the second year, post-Covid period. Both the period was then divided in four trimester each and the same analysis was operated for each trimester. A Chi-square goodness of fit test was performed to compare the number of vaccinations performed both in the 2 years and in the 8 trimesters. Findings Seven thousand two hundred and eighty-three vaccinations were administered: 4,641 in the period between April 2019 and March 2020 and 2,642 between April 2020 and March 2021. The drop in immunizations performed began as soon as the first cases were described in China. The drops were statistically significant when the first three trimesters of the two study periods were compared, while no statistically significant differences were observed for all the vaccines performed in the 4th trimesters. Vaccines administered at birth (BCG) were less affected compared to booster vaccinations. Conclusions Immunizations administered in a referral health center in Sierra Leone significantly declined during the pandemic. Although the decline was less pronounced in the last months of the pandemic, we don't think that the small increase would indicate the recovery of previously missed vaccinations. These findings open new public health challenges for the coming years.

20.
Children (Basel) ; 9(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776146

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology, disease severity, and microbiology of bronchiolitis in Italy during the 2021-2022 cold season, outside of lockdowns. Before COVID-19, the usual bronchiolitis season in Italy would begin in November and end in April, peaking in February. We performed a prospective observational study in four referral pediatric centers located in different geographical areas in Italy (two in the north, one in the center and one in the south). From 1 July 2021 to 31 January 2022, we collected all new clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis in children younger than two years of age recording demographic, clinical and microbiological data. A total of 657 children with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis were enrolled; 56% children were admitted and 5.9% required PICU admission. The first cases were detected during the summer, peaking in November 2021 and declining into December 2021 with only a few cases detected in January 2022. RSV was the commonest etiological agent, while SARS-CoV-2 was rarely detected and only since the end of December 2021. Disease severity was similar in children with RSV vs. non-RSV bronchiolitis, and in those with a single infectious agent detected compared with children with co-infections. The 2021-2022 bronchiolitis season in Italy started and peaked earlier than the usual pre-pandemic seasons, but had a shorter duration. Importantly, the current bronchiolitis season was not more severe when data were compared with Italian published data, and SARS-CoV-2 was rarely a cause of bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months of age.

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