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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1551-1558, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892586

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among Cameron Peak Fire responders in Colorado, USA, during August 2020-January 2021. The Cameron Peak Fire was the largest recorded wildfire in Colorado history, lasting August-December 2020. At least 6,123 responders were involved, including 1,260 firefighters in 63 crews who mobilized to the fire camps. A total of 79 COVID-19 cases were identified among responders, and 273 close contacts were quarantined. State and local public health investigated the outbreak and coordinated with wildfire management teams to prevent disease spread. We performed whole-genome sequencing and applied social network analysis to visualize clusters and transmission dynamics. Phylogenetic analysis identified 8 lineages among sequenced specimens, implying multiple introductions. Social network analysis identified spread between and within crews. Strategies such as implementing symptom screening and testing of arriving responders, educating responders about overlapping symptoms of smoke inhalation and COVID-19, improving physical distancing of crews, and encouraging vaccinations are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firefighters , Wildfires , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Phylogeny
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S65-S73, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal specimens (NPS) are commonly used for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing but can be uncomfortable for patients. Self-collected saliva specimens (SS) or anterior nasal specimens (ANS) for SARS-CoV-2 detection are less invasive, but the sensitivity of these specimen types has not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: During September-November 2020, 730 adults undergoing SARS-CoV-2 testing at community testing events and homeless shelters in Denver provided self-collected SS and ANS before NPS collection and answered a short survey about symptoms and specimen preference. Specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by means of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); viral culture was performed on a subset of specimens positive by rRT-PCR. The sensitivity of SS and ANS for SARS-CoV-2 detection by rRT-PCR was measured against that of NPS. Subgroup analyses included test outcomes by symptom status and culture results. RESULTS: Sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection by rRT-PCR appeared higher for SS than for ANS (85% vs 80%) and higher among symptomatic participants than among those without symptoms (94% vs 29% for SS; 87% vs 50% for ANS). Among participants with culture-positive SARS-CoV-2 by any specimen type, the sensitivities of SS and ANS by rRT-PCR were 94% and 100%, respectively. SS and ANS were equally preferred by participants; most would undergo NPS collection again despite this method's being the least preferred. CONCLUSIONS: SS were slightly more sensitive than ANS for SARS-CoV-2 detection with rRT-PCR. With both SS and ANS, SARS-CoV-2 was reliably detected among participants with symptoms. Self-collected SS and ANS offer practical advantages, are preferred by patients, and might be most useful for testing people with coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Nasopharynx , Saliva , Specimen Handling
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(32): 1084-1087, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355298

ABSTRACT

On May 5, 2021, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) identified the first five COVID-19 cases caused by the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant in Mesa County in western Colorado (population 154,933, <3% of the state population). All five initial cases were associated with school settings. Through early June, Mesa County experienced a marked increase in the proportion of Delta variant cases identified through sequencing: the 7-day proportion of sequenced specimens identified as B.1.617.2 in Mesa County more than doubled, from 43% for the week ending May 1 to 88% for the week ending June 5. As of June 6, more than one half (51%) of sequenced B.1.617.2 specimens in Colorado were from Mesa County. CDPHE assessed data from surveillance, vaccination, laboratory, and hospital sources to describe the preliminary epidemiology of the Delta variant and calculate crude vaccine effectiveness (VE). Vaccination coverage in early May in Mesa County was lower (36% of eligible residents fully vaccinated) than that in the rest of the state (44%). Compared with that in all other Colorado counties, incidence, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and COVID-19 case fatality ratios were significantly higher in Mesa County during the analysis period, April 27-June 6, 2021. In addition, during the same time period, the proportion of COVID-19 cases in persons who were fully vaccinated (vaccine breakthrough cases) was significantly higher in Mesa County compared with that in all other Colorado counties. Estimated crude VE against reported symptomatic infection for a 2-week period ending June 5 was 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71%-84%) for Mesa County and 89% (95% CI = 88%-91%) for other Colorado counties. Vaccination is a critical strategy for preventing infection, serious illness, and death from COVID-19. Enhanced mitigation strategies, including masking in indoor settings irrespective of vaccination status, should be considered in areas with substantial or high case rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(3): 481-488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259322

ABSTRACT

As was experienced across the country, the COVID-19 pandemic reached Colorado in early spring 2020. Yet, unlike many of the early hotspots in other states, the initial cases in Colorado surfaced in rural areas. It was evident early on it would be a public health crisis unlike anything Colorado had ever faced. There was an urgent need for rapid dissemination of up-to-date information and practice support provided by a multidisciplinary task force of academic health center and state public health experts working collaboratively to meet these needs. This article provides a roadmap for the development of a similar model, a community-connected Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO) program based at an academic medical center and its ability to facilitate the service rapidly and scale to need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Public Health Administration , Telemedicine , Colorado/epidemiology , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1139-1143, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724591

ABSTRACT

Preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in correctional and detention facilities* can be challenging because of population-dense housing, varied access to hygiene facilities and supplies, and limited space for isolation and quarantine (1). Incarcerated and detained populations have a high prevalence of chronic diseases, increasing their risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and making early detection critical (2,3). Correctional and detention facilities are not closed systems; SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can be transmitted to and from the surrounding community through staff member and visitor movements as well as entry, transfer, and release of incarcerated and detained persons (1). To better understand SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in these settings, CDC requested data from 15 jurisdictions describing results of mass testing events among incarcerated and detained persons and cases identified through earlier symptom-based testing. Six jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 0%-86.8% (median = 29.3%) from mass testing events in 16 adult facilities. Before mass testing, 15 of the 16 facilities had identified at least one COVID-19 case among incarcerated or detained persons using symptom-based testing, and mass testing increased the total number of known cases from 642 to 8,239. Case surveillance from symptom-based testing has likely underestimated SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in correctional and detention facilities. Broad-based testing can provide a more accurate assessment of prevalence and generate data to help control transmission (4).


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisons , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
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