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1.
Clinical kidney journal ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999581

ABSTRACT

Background Sotrovimab is a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAB) which seems to remain active against recent SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, the evidence on its use in kidney transplant (KT) recipients is limited. Methods We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 82 KT patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) treated with sotrovimab. Results Median age was 63 years. Diabetes was present in 43.9%, obesity in 32.9% and 48.8% of patients had an estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate <30 mL/min/1.73m2. Additional anti-COVID-19 therapies were administered in 56 patients, especially intravenous steroids (65.9%). Sotrovimab was administered early (<5 days from the onset of the symptoms) in 46 patients (56%). Early-treated patients showed less likely progression to severe COVID-19 than those treated later, represented as a lower need for ventilator support (2.2% vs. 36.1%, P<0.001) or intensive care admission (2.2% vs. 25%;P = 0.002) and COVID-19-related mortality (2.2% vs. 16.7%;P = 0.020). In the multivariable analysis, controlling for baseline risk factors to severe COVID-19 in KT recipients, early use of sotrovimab remained as a protective factor for a composite outcome including need for ventilator support, intensive care and/or COVID-19-related mortality. No anaphylactic reactions, acute rejection episodes, impaired renal function events or non-renal side effects related to sotrovimab were observed. Conclusions Sotrovimab had an excellent safety profile even in high-comorbidity patients and advanced chronic kidney disease stages. Earlier administration could prevent progression to severe disease while clinical outcomes were poor in patients treated later. Larger controlled studies enrolling KT recipients are warranted to elucidate the true efficacy of MAB therapies. Graphical Graphical

2.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS COVID-19 infection has heavily impacted our national health system since March-2020. Although the kidney transplant (KT) activity was strongly reduced initially, nowadays it is partially recovered by using ‘COVID-clean’ pathways and vaccination of KT candidates since February-2021. However, scarce information is available regarding how de novo KT immunosuppression influences the serological status of vaccinated recipients. METHOD We reviewed the course of 38 de novo KT recipients transplanted between March-September 2021 fully vaccinated before KT. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies against Spike (IgG-S) before and after KT (median: 32 days) were quantified with a serological assay (positive ≥13.0 AU/mL). RESULTS Of 38 recipients, 35 showed positive IgG-S at KT (92%). We exclude from the analysis, 4 recipients with COVID infection which interfered the analysis and 5 with inappropriate samples. The remaining 26 recipients had received the second dose of the mRNA vaccine a median time of 48 days before the pre-KT IgG determination. All patients maintained IgG-S over the cut-off after KT, but we observed that half de novo recipients (53.8%) showed a 50% reduction in the level of IgG-S at 1 month: 12/20 (60%) of those who received induction with basiliximab and 2/6 (33%) who received thymoglobulin. Regarding the impact of maintenance immunosuppression under induction with basiliximab, the IgG-S levels halved in 50% of those with tacrolimus-mycophenolate and 67% with tacrolimus-everolimus. The restricted analysis of IgG-S levels excluding five outliers before KT (>800 AU/mL) showed the most intense reduction in three KT recipients who received thymoglobulin-tacrolimus- mycophenolate (263.8 versus 68.8, 74%) compared with seven basiliximab-tacrolimus-mycophenolate cases (494.4 versus 359.8, 27%) and eleven basiliximab-tacrolimus-everolimus (344.0 versus 306.4, 11%) KT recipients. CONCLUSION Immunosuppression in de novo KT recipients reduces significantly the seroprotective levels of antibodies anti-Spike induced by COVID m-RNA vaccines in more than half the recipients. In our experience, the combination of thymoglobulin, tacrolimus and mycophenolate produces a more intense reduction than the combination of basiliximab with tacrolimus and mycophenolate or everolimus.

3.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS The successive COVID-19 epidemic waves have significantly influenced kidney transplantation (KT) programs. Contact protection together with vaccination are the principal protective tools for KT recipients. We reviewed the impact of COVID-19 infection in KT recipients throughout the different epidemic waves. METHOD Of 900 active KT recipients in our program, 160 (17.8%) have suffered COVID-19 infection during the six epidemic waves: first (March–August 2020), second (September–December2020), third (January–March 2021), fourth (April–May 2021), fifth (June–September 2021) and sixth (October–December 2021, preliminary data). We compared the clinical evolution and the impact of vaccination. RESULTS Infected KT recipients were younger in the third and fourth waves (P  < 0.001). We observed a higher percentage of pneumonia and hospital admission in the first and fifth waves (P = 0.045, P = 0.016) (Table 1), without differences in ICU admission, and with the disappearance of asymptomatic cases after the third wave. The highest mortality was observed in KT recipients >65 years old infected within the first 6 months after KT (P = 0.006) and overall mortality was higher in the first wave (P = 0.033). Mortality in hospitalized KT recipients and those admitted in the ICU were similar along the 5 waves, without clear impact of vaccination (P = 0.251). On the 5 January 2022, we have already accumulated an incidence of COVID in KT of 3.1% (sixth wave, 77% with booster vaccination), similar to the first wave (3.8%), with 12.5% mortality, similar to second, third and fifth waves, in patients with outcome (53.3%). CONCLUSION The incidence of COVID-19 in KT recipients has been high in all the waves of the pandemic in Spain. Global mortality has diminished after the first wave, and the time until outcome has increased. The highest mortality occurs in the subgroup of old KT recipients early after KT. Vaccination has not significantly reduced the mortality in KT with Covid who require hospital or ICU admission.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 615312, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993382

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus 2 has generated significant impact on global health worldwide. COVID-19 can cause pneumonia and organ injury. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with increased mortality in previous epidemics, but there is a paucity of data regarding actual risks for non-dialysis CKD patients with COVID-19. Methods: Multicenter, observational cohort study including 136 non-dialysis CKD patients and 136 age- and sex-matched controls that required hospitalization due to COVID-19. Patients with end-stage renal disease, a kidney transplant or without registered baseline glomerular filtration rate prior to COVID-19 infection were excluded. CKD and acute kidney injury (AKI) were defined according to KDIGO criteria. Results: CKD patients had higher white blood cell count and D-dimer and lower lymphocyte percentage. No differences were found regarding symptoms on admission. CKD was associated with higher rate of AKI (61 vs. 24.3%) and mortality (40.4 vs. 24.3%). Patients with AKI had the highest hazard for death (AKI/non-CKD HR:7.04, 95% CI:2.87-17.29; AKI/CKD HR:5.25, 95% CI: 2.29-12.02), followed by CKD subjects without AKI (HR:3.39, 95% CI:1.36-8.46). CKD status did not condition ICU admission or length of in-hospital stay. Conclusions: CKD patients that require hospitalization due to COVID-19 are exposed to higher risk of death and AKI.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721504

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to frequent referrals to the emergency department on suspicion of this infection in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and kidney transplant (KT) patients. We aimed to describe their clinical features comparing confirmed and suspected non-confirmed COVID-19 cases during the Spanish epidemic peak. Confirmed COVID-19 ((+)COVID-19) corresponds to patient with positive RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 assay. Non-confirmed COVID-19 ((-)COVID-19) corresponds to patients with negative RT-PCR. COVID-19 was suspected in 61 patients (40/803 KT (4.9%), 21/220 MHD (9.5%)). Prevalence of (+)COVID-19 was 3.2% in KT and 3.6% in MHD patients. Thirty-four (26 KT and 8 MHD) were (+)COVID-19 and 27 (14 KT and 13 MHD) (-)COVID-19. In comparison with (-)COVID-19 patients, (+)COVID-19 showed higher frequency of typical viral symptoms (cough, dyspnea, asthenia and myalgias), pneumonia (88.2% vs. 14.3%) and LDH and CRP while lower phosphate levels, need of hospital admission (100% vs. 63%), use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (36% vs. 11%) and mortality (38% vs. 0%) (p < 0.001). Time from symptoms onset to admission was longer in patients who finally died than in survivors (8.5 vs. 3.8, p = 0.007). In KT and MHD patients, (+)COVID-19 shows more clinical severity than suspected non-confirmed cases. Prompt RT-PCR is mandatory to confirm COVID-19 diagnosis.

6.
Am J Transplant ; 20(10): 2883-2889, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-424388

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov-2 infection disease (COVID-19) pandemic has posed at risk the kidney transplant (KT) population, particularly the elderly recipients. From March 12 until April 4, 2020, we diagnosed COVID-19 in 16 of our 324 KT patients aged ≥65 years old (4.9%). Many of them had had contact with healthcare facilities in the month prior to infection. Median time of symptom onset to admission was 7 days. All presented with fever and all but one with pneumonia. Up to 33% showed renal graft dysfunction. At infection diagnosis, mTOR inhibitors or mycophenolate were withdrawn. Tacrolimus was withdrawn in 70%. The main treatment combination was hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. A subset of patients was treated with anti-retroviral and tocilizumab. Short-term fatality rate was 50% at a median time since admission of 3 days. Those who died were more frequently obese, frail, and had underlying heart disease. Although a higher respiratory rate was observed at admission in nonsurvivors, symptoms at presentation were similar between both groups. Patients who died were more anemic, lymphopenic, and showed higher D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 at their first tests. COVID-19 is frequent among the elderly KT population and associates a very early and high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
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