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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003991, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging and future SARS-CoV-2 variants may jeopardize the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. Therefore, it is important to know how the different vaccines perform against diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort of 165 SARS-CoV-2 naive health care workers in the Netherlands, vaccinated with either one of four vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, AZD1222 or Ad26.COV2.S), we performed a head-to-head comparison of the ability of sera to recognize and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs; Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Repeated serum sampling was performed 5 times during a year (from January 2021 till January 2022), including before and after booster vaccination with BNT162b2. Four weeks after completing the initial vaccination series, SARS-CoV-2 wild-type neutralizing antibody titers were highest in recipients of mRNA-1273, followed by recipients of BNT162b2 (geometric mean titers (GMT) of 358 [95% CI 231-556] and 214 [95% CI 153-299], respectively; p<0.05), and substantially lower in those vaccinated with the adenovirus vector-based vaccines AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S (GMT of 18 [95% CI 11-30] and 14 [95% CI 8-25] IU/ml, respectively; p<0.001). VOCs neutralization was reduced in all vaccine groups, with the greatest reduction in neutralization GMT observed against the Omicron variant (fold change 0.03 [95% CI 0.02-0.04], p<0.001). The booster BNT162b2 vaccination increased neutralizing antibody titers for all groups with substantial improvement against the VOCs including the Omicron variant. We used linear regression and linear mixed model analysis. All results were adjusted for possible confounding of age and sex. Study limitations include the lack of cellular immunity data. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study shows that the mRNA vaccines appear superior to adenovirus vector-based vaccines in inducing neutralizing antibodies against VOCs four weeks after initial vaccination and after booster vaccination, which implies the use of mRNA vaccines for both initial and booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3884, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740465

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are effective, but long-term protection is threatened by the emergence of virus variants. We generated a virosome vaccine containing the Beta spike protein and compared its immunogenicity in mice to a virosome vaccine containing the original Wuhan spike. Two administrations of the virosomes induced potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in both vaccine groups. The level of autologous neutralization in Beta-vaccinated mice was similar to the level of autologous neutralization in Wuhan-vaccinated mice. However, heterologous neutralization to the Wuhan strain in Beta-vaccinated mice was 4.7-fold lower than autologous neutralization, whereas heterologous neutralization to the Beta strain in Wuhan-vaccinated mice was reduced by only 1.9-fold compared to autologous neutralization levels. In addition, neutralizing activity against the D614G, Alpha and Delta variants was also significantly lower after Beta spike vaccination than after Wuhan spike vaccination. Our results show that Beta spike vaccination induces inferior neutralization breadth. These results are informative for programs aimed to develop broadly active SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Breath Tests , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Vaccines, Virosome/immunology , Vaccines, Virosome/therapeutic use
4.
Blood Adv ; 6(5): 1537-1546, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666615

ABSTRACT

Vaccination guidelines for patients treated for hematological diseases are typically conservative. Given their high risk for severe COVID-19, it is important to identify those patients that benefit from vaccination. We prospectively quantified serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spike subunit 1 (S1) antigens during and after 2-dose mRNA-1273 (Spikevax/Moderna) vaccination in hematology patients. Obtaining S1 IgG ≥ 300 binding antibody units (BAUs)/mL was considered adequate as it represents the lower level of S1 IgG concentration obtained in healthy individuals, and it correlates with potent virus neutralization. Selected patients (n = 723) were severely immunocompromised owing to their disease or treatment thereof. Nevertheless, >50% of patients obtained S1 IgG ≥ 300 BAUs/mL after 2-dose mRNA-1273. All patients with sickle cell disease or chronic myeloid leukemia obtained adequate antibody concentrations. Around 70% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), multiple myeloma, or untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) obtained S1 IgG ≥ 300 BAUs/mL. Ruxolitinib or hypomethylating therapy but not high-dose chemotherapy blunted responses in myeloid malignancies. Responses in patients with lymphoma, patients with CLL on ibrutinib, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell recipients were low. The minimal time interval after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to reach adequate concentrations was <2 months for multiple myeloma, 8 months for lymphoma, and 4 to 6 months after allogeneic HCT. Serum IgG4, absolute B- and natural killer-cell number, and number of immunosuppressants predicted S1 IgG ≥ 300 BAUs/mL. Hematology patients on chemotherapy, shortly after HCT, or with cGVHD should not be precluded from vaccination. This trial was registered at Netherlands Trial Register as #NL9553.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100528, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649494

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused an ongoing global health crisis. Here, we present as a vaccine candidate synthetic SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein-coated lipid vesicles that resemble virus-like particles. Soluble S glycoprotein trimer stabilization by formaldehyde cross-linking introduces two major inter-protomer cross-links that keep all receptor-binding domains in the "down" conformation. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with S coated onto lipid vesicles (S-LVs) induces high antibody titers with potent neutralizing activity against the vaccine strain, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants as well as T helper (Th)1 CD4+-biased T cell responses. Although anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody responses are initially predominant, the third immunization boosts significant non-RBD antibody titers. Challenging vaccinated animals with SARS-CoV-2 shows a complete protection through sterilizing immunity, which correlates with the presence of nasopharyngeal anti-S immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA titers. Thus, the S-LV approach is an efficient and safe vaccine candidate based on a proven classical approach for further development and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Liposomes , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Th1 Cells/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Vero Cells
6.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(1): 100486, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569129

ABSTRACT

The urgent need for, but limited availability of, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines worldwide has led to widespread consideration of dose-sparing strategies. Here, we evaluate the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses following BNT162b2 vaccination in 150 previously SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals from a population-based cohort. One week after first vaccine dose, spike protein antibody levels are 27-fold higher and neutralizing antibody titers 12-fold higher, exceeding titers of fully vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-naive controls, with minimal additional boosting after the second dose. Neutralizing antibody titers against four variants of concern increase after vaccination; however, overall neutralization breadth does not improve. Pre-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers and time since infection have the largest positive effect on titers following vaccination. COVID-19 severity and the presence of comorbidities have no discernible impact on vaccine response. In conclusion, a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine up to 15 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection offers higher neutralizing antibody titers than 2 vaccine doses in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome
7.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 146, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550286

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that are more resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization pose a new hurdle in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccines based on the original Wuhan sequence have been shown to be effective at preventing COVID-19, their efficacy is likely to be decreased against more neutralization-resistant variants-of-concern (VOC), in particular, the Beta variant originating in South Africa. We assessed, in mice, rabbits, and non-human primates, whether a third vaccination with experimental Wuhan-based Spike vaccines could alleviate this problem. Our data show that a third immunization improves neutralizing antibody titers against the variants-of-concern, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2). After three vaccinations, the level of neutralization against Beta was similar to the level of neutralization against the original strain after two vaccinations, suggesting that simply providing a third immunization could nullify the reduced activity of current vaccines against VOC.

8.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529013

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are losing efficacy against emerging variants and may not protect against future novel coronavirus outbreaks, emphasizing the need for more broadly protective vaccines. To inform the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine, we investigated the presence and specificity of cross-reactive antibodies against the spike (S) proteins of human coronaviruses (hCoV) after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We found an 11- to 123-fold increase in antibodies binding to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV as well as a 2- to 4-fold difference in antibodies binding to seasonal hCoVs in COVID-19 convalescent sera compared to pre-pandemic healthy donors, with the S2 subdomain of the S protein being the main target for cross-reactivity. In addition, we detected cross-reactive antibodies to all hCoV S proteins after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in macaques and humans, with higher responses for hCoV more closely related to SARS-CoV-2. These findings support the feasibility of and provide guidance for development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Principal Component Analysis , Protein Domains/immunology , Serum/immunology , Serum/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , /immunology
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475295

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Distribution , Viral Load
10.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103589, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To optimise the use of available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, some advocate delaying second vaccination for individuals infected within six months. We studied whether post-vaccination immune response is equally potent in individuals infected over six months prior to vaccination. METHODS: We tested serum IgG binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and neutralising capacity in 110 healthcare workers, before and after both BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccinations. We compared outcomes between participants with more recent infection (n = 18, median two months, IQR 2-3), with infection-vaccination interval over six months (n = 19, median nine months, IQR 9-10), and to those not previously infected (n = 73). FINDINGS: Both recently and earlier infected participants showed comparable humoral immune responses after a single mRNA vaccination, while exceeding those of previously uninfected persons after two vaccinations with 2.5 fold (p = 0.003) and 3.4 fold (p < 0.001) for binding antibody levels, and 6.4 and 7.2 fold for neutralisation titres, respectively (both p < 0.001). The second vaccine dose yielded no further substantial improvement of the humoral response in the previously infected participants (0.97 fold, p = 0.92), while it was associated with a 4 fold increase in antibody binding levels and 18 fold increase in neutralisation titres in previously uninfected participants (both p < 0.001). Adjustment for potential confounding of sex and age did not affect these findings. INTERPRETATION: Delaying the second vaccination in individuals infected up to ten months prior may constitute a more efficient use of limited vaccine supplies. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development ZonMw; Corona Research Fund Amsterdam UMC; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Sci Adv ; 7(36): eabj5365, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403006

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) pose a threat to human immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. We assessed the recognition of three VOCs (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) in cohorts of COVID-19 convalescent patients (n = 69) and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine recipients (n = 50). Spike binding and neutralization against all three VOCs were substantially reduced in most individuals, with the largest four- to sevenfold reduction in neutralization being observed against B.1.351. While hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and vaccinees maintained sufficient neutralizing titers against all three VOCs, 39% of nonhospitalized patients exhibited no detectable neutralization against B.1.351. Moreover, monoclonal neutralizing antibodies show sharp reductions in their binding kinetics and neutralizing potential to B.1.351 and P.1 but not to B.1.1.7. These data have implications for the degree to which pre-existing immunity can protect against subsequent infection with VOCs and informs policy makers of susceptibility to globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many put their hopes in the rapid availability of effective immunizations. Human milk, containing antibodies against syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may serve as means of protection through passive immunization. We aimed to determine the presence and pseudovirus neutralization capacity of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk of mothers who recovered from COVID-19, and the effect of pasteurization on these antibodies. METHODS: This prospective case control study included lactating mothers, recovered from (suspected) COVID-19 and healthy controls. Human milk and serum samples were collected. To assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we used multiple complementary assays, namely ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (specific for IgA and IgG), receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein for IgG in serum, and bridging ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and N protein for specific Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA in human milk and serum). To assess the effect of pasteurization, human milk was exposed to Holder (HoP) and High Pressure Pasteurization (HPP). RESULTS: Human milk contained abundant SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 83% of the proven cases and in 67% of the suspected cases. Unpasteurized milk with and without these antibodies was found to be capable of neutralizing a pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 in (97% and 85% of the samples respectively). After pasteurization, total IgA antibody levels were affected by HoP, while SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were affected by HPP. Pseudovirus neutralizing capacity of the human milk samples was only retained with the HPP approach. No correlation was observed between milk antibody levels and neutralization capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk from recovered COVID-19-infected mothers contains SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies which maintained neutralization capacity after HPP. All together this may represent a safe and effective immunization strategy after HPP.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lactation , Milk, Human/immunology , Pasteurization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans
13.
Cell ; 184(5): 1188-1200.e19, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046538

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is continuing to disrupt personal lives, global healthcare systems, and economies. Hence, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that prevents viral infection, transmission, and disease. Here, we present a two-component protein-based nanoparticle vaccine that displays multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Immunization studies show that this vaccine induces potent neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rabbits, and cynomolgus macaques. The vaccine-induced immunity protects macaques against a high-dose challenge, resulting in strongly reduced viral infection and replication in the upper and lower airways. These nanoparticles are a promising vaccine candidate to curtail the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Macaca fascicularis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load
15.
Science ; 369(6504): 643-650, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599037

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a large impact on global health, travel, and economy. Therefore, preventative and therapeutic measures are urgently needed. Here, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from three convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using a SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike protein. These antibodies had low levels of somatic hypermutation and showed a strong enrichment in VH1-69, VH3-30-3, and VH1-24 gene usage. A subset of the antibodies was able to potently inhibit authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection at a concentration as low as 0.007 micrograms per milliliter. Competition and electron microscopy studies illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contains multiple distinct antigenic sites, including several receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes as well as non-RBD epitopes. In addition to providing guidance for vaccine design, the antibodies described here are promising candidates for COVID-19 treatment and prevention.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Affinity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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