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1.
Vox Sang ; 117(6): 822-830, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted blood systems worldwide. Challenges included maintaining blood supplies and initiating the collection and use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Sharing information on the challenges can help improve blood collection and utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey questionnaire was distributed to International Society of Blood Transfusion members in 95 countries. We recorded respondents' demographic information, impacts on the blood supply, CCP collection and use, transfusion demands and operational challenges. RESULTS: Eighty-two responses from 42 countries, including 24 low- and middle-income countries, were analysed. Participants worked in national (26.8%) and regional (26.8%) blood establishments and hospital-based (42.7%) institutions. CCP collection and transfusion were reported by 63% and 36.6% of respondents, respectively. Decreases in blood donations occurred in 70.6% of collecting facilities. Despite safety measures and recruitment strategies, donor fear and refusal of institutions to host blood drives were major contributing factors. Almost half of respondents working at transfusion medicine services were from large hospitals with over 10,000 red cell transfusions per year, and 76.8% of those hospitals experienced blood shortages. Practices varied in accepting donors for blood or CCP donations after a history of COVID-19 infection, CCP transfusion, or vaccination. Operational challenges included loss of staff, increased workloads and delays in reagent supplies. Almost half of the institutions modified their disaster plans during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The challenges faced by blood systems during the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the need for guidance, harmonization, and strengthening of the preparedness and the capacity of blood systems against future infectious threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Blood Banks , Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103488, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886109

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has significantly disrupted and burdened the diagnostic workup and delivery of care, including transfusion, to cancer patients across the globe. Furthermore, cancer patients suffering from solid tumors or hematologic malignancies were more prone to the infection and had higher morbidity and mortality than the rest of the population. Major signaling pathways have been identified at the intersection of SARS-CoV-2 and cancer cells, often leading to tumor progression or alteration of the tumor response to therapy. The reactivation of oncogenic viruses has also been alluded to in the context and following COVID-19. Paradoxically, certain tumors responded better following the profound infection-induced immune modulation. Unveiling the mechanisms of the virus-tumor cell interactions will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of both cancer progression and virus propagation. It would be challenging to monitor, through the different cancer registries, retrospectively, the response of patients who have been previously exposed to the virus in contrast to those who have not contracted the infection.

3.
Transfus Med Rev ; 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882561

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the potential therapeutic value of early passive polyclonal immunotherapy using high-titer convalescent plasma (CCP). Human polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIG) has several advantages over CCP. Unlike CCP, HIG can provide standardized and controlled antibody content. It is also subjected to robust pathogen reduction rendering it virally safe and is purified by technologies demonstrated to preserve immunoglobulin neutralization capacity and Fc fragment integrity. This document provides an overview of current practices and guidance for the collection and testing of plasma rich in antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its industrial fractionation for the manufacture of quality-assured and safe HIG. Considerations are also given to the production of HIG preparations in low- and middle-income countries.

4.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 61(3): 103459, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852173

ABSTRACT

Platelets are at the crossroads between thrombosis and inflammation. When activated, platelets can shed bioactive extracellular vesicles [pEVs] that share the hemostatic potential of their parent cells and act as bioactive shuttles of their granular contents. In a viral infection, platelets are activated, and pEVs are generated with occasional virion integration. Both platelets and pEVs are engaged in a bidirectional interaction with neutrophils and other cells of the immune system and the hemostatic pathways. Severe COVID-19 infection is characterized by a stormy thromboinflammatory response with platelets and their EVs at the center stage of this reaction. This review sheds light on the interactions of platelets, pEVS and SARS-CoV-2 infection and prognostic and potential therapeutic role of pEVs. The review also describes the role of pEVs in the rare adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombosis thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Hemostatics , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Hemostatics/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; : e0020021, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736023

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) recurs as a frontline treatment in epidemics because it is available as soon as there are survivors. The COVID-19 pandemic represented the first large-scale opportunity to shed light on the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of CP using modern evidence-based medicine approaches. Studies ranging from observational case series to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported highly variable efficacy results for COVID-19 CP (CCP), resulting in uncertainty. We analyzed variables associated with efficacy, such as clinical settings, disease severity, CCP SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antibody levels and function, dose, timing of administration (variously defined as time from onset of symptoms, molecular diagnosis, diagnosis of pneumonia, or hospitalization, or by serostatus), outcomes (defined as hospitalization, requirement for ventilation, clinical improvement, or mortality), CCP provenance and time for collection, and criteria for efficacy. The conflicting trial results, along with both recent WHO guidelines discouraging CCP usage and the recent expansion of the FDA emergency use authorization (EUA) to include outpatient use of CCP, create confusion for both clinicians and patients about the appropriate use of CCP. A review of 30 available RCTs demonstrated that signals of efficacy (including reductions in mortality) were more likely if the CCP neutralizing titer was >160 and the time to randomization was less than 9 days. The emergence of the Omicron variant also reminds us of the benefits of polyclonal antibody therapies, especially as a bridge to the development and availability of more specific therapies.

9.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 872-879, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lack of definitive treatment or preventative options for COVID-19 led many clinicians early on to consider convalescent plasma (CCP) as potentially therapeutic. Regulators, blood centres and hospitals worldwide worked quickly to get CCP to the bedside. Although response was admirable, several areas have been identified to help improve future pandemic management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, multinational subgroup from the ISBT Working Group on COVID-19 was tasked with drafting a manuscript that describes the lessons learned pertaining to procurement and administration of CCP, derived from a comprehensive questionnaire within the subgroup. RESULTS: While each country's responses and preparedness for the pandemic varied, there were shared challenges, spanning supply chain disruptions, staffing, impact of social distancing on the collection of regular blood and CCP products, and the availability of screening and confirmatory SARS-CoV-2 testing for donors and patients. The lack of a general framework to organize data gathering across clinical trials and the desire to provide a potentially life-saving therapeutic through compassionate use hampered the collection of much-needed safety and outcome data worldwide. Communication across all stakeholders was identified as being central to reducing confusion. CONCLUSION: The need for flexibility and adaptability remains paramount when dealing with a pandemic. As the world approaches the first anniversary of the COVID-19 pandemic with rising rates worldwide and over 115 million cases and 2·55 million deaths, respectively, it is important to reflect on how to better prepare for future pandemics as we continue to combat the current one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355048

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is currently under investigation for both treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. The active component of CCP mediating improved outcome is commonly reported as specific antibodies, particularly neutralizing antibodies, with clinical efficacy characterized according to the level or antibody affinity. In this review, we highlight the potential role of additional factors in CCP that can be either beneficial (e.g., AT-III, alpha-1 AT, ACE2+ extracellular vesicles) or detrimental (e.g., anti-ADAMTS13, anti-MDA5 or anti-interferon autoantibodies, pro-coagulant extracellular vesicles). Variations in these factors in CCP may contribute to varied outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and undergoing CCP therapy. We advise careful, retrospective investigation of such co-factors in randomized clinical trials that use fresh frozen plasma in control arms. Nevertheless, it might be difficult to establish a causal link between these components and outcome, given that CCP is generally safe and neutralizing antibody effects may predominate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/blood , Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Cross Reactions , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunologic Factors/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/blood
13.
Vox Sang ; 116(1): 18-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been used, predominantly in high-income countries (HICs) to treat COVID-19; available data suggest the safety and efficacy of use. We sought to develop guidance for procurement and use of CCP, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for which data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, geographically representative group of individuals with expertise spanning transfusion medicine, infectious diseases and haematology was tasked with the development of a guidance document for CCP, drawing on expert opinion, survey of group members and review of available evidence. Three subgroups (i.e. donor, product and patient) were established based on self-identified expertise and interest. Here, the donor and product-related challenges are summarized and contrasted between HICs and LMICs with a view to guide related practices. RESULTS: The challenges to advance CCP therapy are different between HICs and LMICs. Early challenges in HICs related to recruitment and qualification of sufficient donors to meet the growing demand. Antibody testing also posed a specific obstacle given lack of standardization, variable performance of the assays in use and uncertain interpretation of results. In LMICs, an extant transfusion deficit, suboptimal models of donor recruitment (e.g. reliance on replacement and paid donors), limited laboratory capacity for pre-donation qualification and operational considerations could impede wide adoption. CONCLUSION: There has been wide-scale adoption of CCP in many HICs, which could increase if clinical trials show efficacy of use. By contrast, LMICs, having received little attention, require locally applicable strategies for adoption of CCP.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Developing Countries , Guidelines as Topic , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cytotherapy ; 22(8): 458-472, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AIMS: Human platelet lysate can replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) for xeno-free ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but pooling of platelet concentrates (PCs) increases risks of pathogen transmission. We evaluated the feasibility of performing nanofiltration of platelet lysates and determined the impact on expansion of bone marrow-derived MSCs. METHODS: Platelet lysates were prepared by freeze-thawing of pathogen-reduced (Intercept) PCs suspended in 65% storage solution (SPP+) and 35% plasma, and by serum-conversion of PCs suspended in 100% plasma. Lysates were added to the MSC growth media at 10% (v/v), filtered and subjected to cascade nanofiltration on 35- and 19-nm Planova filters. Media supplemented with 10% starting platelet lysates or FBS were used as the controls. Impacts of nanofiltration on the growth media composition, removal of platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs) and MSC expansion were evaluated. RESULTS: Nanofiltration did not detrimentally affect contents of total protein and growth factors or the biochemical composition. The clearance factor of PEVs was >3 log values. Expansion, proliferation, membrane markers, differentiation potential and immunosuppressive properties of cells in nanofiltered media were consistently better than those expanded in FBS-supplemented media. Compared with FBS, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis genes were expressed more in nanofiltered media, and there were fewer senescent cells over six passages. CONCLUSIONS: Nanofiltration of growth media supplemented with two types of platelet lysates, including one prepared from pathogen-reduced PCs, is technically feasible. These data support the possibility of developing pathogen-reduced xeno-free growth media for clinical-grade propagation of human cells.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/cytology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Filtration , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Nanotechnology , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Lineage/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Culture Media/pharmacology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Particle Size , Serum/chemistry
16.
Vox Sang ; 115(6): 485-487, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101993
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