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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 88(2): 679-692, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social restriction measures imposed to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom impacted on carers of people with dementia, limiting access to support services and increasing perceived burden of caring. Few studies have compared data collected both during and before the pandemic to examine the effect of these changes. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the well-being of carers of people with dementia living in the community, and their ability to cope with their caring responsibilities. METHODS: Analysis was conducted on two groups of carers who were enrolled in the IDEAL programme; the 'pre-pandemic group' (n = 312), assessed at two time points prior to the pandemic, and the 'pandemic group', assessed prior to and several months into the pandemic (n = 156). For the pre-pandemic group, carers were matched 2:1 to carers in the pandemic group on certain characteristics. Differences in change over time between the two groups on self-reported well-being, quality of life, coping, perceived competence, and role captivity, were investigated using mixed effect modelling. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-pandemic group, those in the pandemic group appeared to cope better and had more stable self-rated competency and role captivity. They did not differ in terms of well-being or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Despite reports of negative impacts on carers early in the pandemic, the findings suggest the pandemic had little negative longer-term impact on carers of people with dementia, and in fact they appeared to have a more positive attitude towards coping several months into the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 849808, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775806

ABSTRACT

Objective: Research suggests a decline in the mental health and wellbeing of people with dementia (PwD) during the COVID-19 pandemic; however few studies have compared data collected pre-pandemic and during the pandemic. Moreover, none have compared this change with what would be expected due to dementia progression. We explored whether PwD experienced changes in mental health and wellbeing by comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic data, and drew comparisons with another group of PwD questioned on two occasions prior to the pandemic. Methods: Community-dwelling PwD enrolled in the IDEAL programme were split into two groups matched for age group, sex, dementia diagnosis, and time since diagnosis. Although each group was assessed twice, one was assessed prior to and during the pandemic (pandemic group; n = 115) whereas the other was assessed prior to the pandemic (pre-pandemic group; n = 230). PwD completed measures of mood, sense of self, wellbeing, optimism, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Results: Compared to the pre-pandemic group, the pandemic group were less likely to report mood problems, or be pessimistic, but more likely to become dissatisfied with their lives. There were no changes in continuity in sense of self, wellbeing, and quality of life. Discussion: Results suggest the pandemic had little effect on the mental health and wellbeing of PwD, with any changes observed likely to be consistent with expected rates of decline due to dementia. Although personal accounts attest to the challenges experienced, PwD appear to have been resilient to the impact of lockdown and social restrictions during the pandemic.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329903

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdown and social restriction measures imposed to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom impacted on carers of people with dementia, limiting their access to support services and increasing perceived burden of caring. Few studies have compared data collected during the pandemic and data collected before the pandemic to examine the effect of these changes. Objective To explore whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the well-being of carers of people with dementia, and their ability to cope with their caring responsibilities. Methods Carers of people with dementia living in the community who were enrolled in the IDEAL programme were split into two groups matched on demographic characteristics: the ‘pre-pandemic group’ (n = 312), assessed at two time points prior to the pandemic, and the ‘pandemic group’, assessed prior to and several months into the pandemic (n = 156). Self-report measures of carer well-being, quality of life, coping, perceived competence and role captivity were completed. Results Compared to the pre-pandemic group, those in the pandemic group appeared to cope better and had more stable self-rated competency and role captivity. They did not differ in terms of well-being or quality of life. Conclusion Despite reports of negative impacts on carers early in the pandemic, our findings suggest the pandemic had little negative longer-term impact on carers of people with dementia, and in fact they appeared to have a more positive attitude towards coping several months into the pandemic.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 85(2): 925-940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with dementia have been widely-documented, but most studies have relied on carer reports and few have compared responses to information collected before the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on community-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia and compare responses with pre-pandemic data. METHODS: During the second wave of the pandemic, we conducted structured telephone interviews with 173 people with dementia and 242 carers acting as informants, all of whom had previously participated in the IDEAL cohort. Where possible, we benchmarked responses against pre-pandemic data. RESULTS: Significant perceived negative impacts were identified in cognitive and functional skills and ability to engage in self-care and manage everyday activities, along with increased levels of loneliness and discontinuity in sense of self and a decline in perceived capability to 'live well'. Compared to pre-pandemic data, there were lower levels of pain, depression, and anxiety, higher levels of optimism, and better satisfaction with family support. There was little impact on physical health, mood, social connections and relationships, or perceptions of neighborhood characteristics. CONCLUSION: Efforts to mitigate negative impacts of pandemic-related restrictions and restore quality of life could focus on reablement to address the effects on participation in everyday activities, creating opportunities for social contact to reduce loneliness, and personalized planning to reconnect people with their pre-COVID selves. Such efforts may build on the resilience demonstrated by people with dementia and carers in coping with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/complications , Dementia/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292415

ABSTRACT

Background: Negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with dementia have been widely-documented, but most studies have relied on carer reports and few have compared responses to information collected before the pandemic. Objective We aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on community-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia and compare responses with pre-pandemic data. Methods During the second wave of the pandemic we conducted structured telephone interviews with 173 people with dementia and 242 carers acting as informants, all of whom had previously participated in the IDEAL cohort. Where possible we benchmarked responses against pre-pandemic data. Results Significant perceived negative impacts were identified in cognitive and functional skills and ability to engage in self-care and manage everyday activities, along with increased levels of loneliness and discontinuity in sense of self and a decline in perceived capability to ‘live well’. Compared to pre-pandemic data there were lower levels of pain, depression and anxiety, higher levels of optimism, and better satisfaction with family support. There was little impact on physical health, mood, social connections and relationships, or perceptions of neighbourhood characteristics. Conclusion Efforts to mitigate negative impacts of pandemic-related restrictions and restore quality of life could focus on reablement to address the effects on participation in everyday activities, creating opportunities for social contact to reduce loneliness, and personalised planning to reconnect people with their pre-COVID selves. Such efforts may build on the resilience demonstrated by people with dementia and carers in coping with the pandemic.

7.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(11): 1597-1639, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In response to a commissioned research update on dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic, a UK-based working group, comprising dementia researchers from a range of fields and disciplines, aimed to describe the impact of the pandemic on dementia wellbeing and identify priorities for future research. METHODS: We supplemented a rapid literature search (including unpublished, non-peer reviewed and ongoing studies/reports) on dementia wellbeing in the context of COVID-19 with expert group members' consensus about future research needs. From this we generated potential research questions the group judged to be relevant that were not covered by the existing literature. RESULTS: Themes emerged from 141 studies within the six domains of the NHS England COVID-19 Dementia Wellbeing Pathway: Preventing Well, Diagnosing Well, Treating Well, Supporting Well, Living Well and Dying Well. We describe current research findings and knowledge gaps relating to the impact on people affected by dementia (individuals with a diagnosis, their carers and social contacts, health and social care practitioners and volunteers), services, research activities and organisations. Broad themes included the potential benefits and risks of new models of working including remote healthcare, the need for population-representative longitudinal studies to monitor longer-term impacts, and the importance of reporting dementia-related findings within broader health and care studies. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionately negative impact on people affected by dementia. Researchers and funding organisations have responded rapidly to try to understand the impacts. Future research should highlight and resolve outstanding questions to develop evidence-based measures to improve the quality of life of people affected by dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Consensus , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(7): 1120-1121, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219029

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(6): 943-949, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037478

ABSTRACT

The effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been well documented across the world with an appreciation that older people and in particular those with dementia have been disproportionately and negatively affected by the pandemic. This is both in terms of their health outcomes (mortality and morbidity), care decisions made by health systems and the longer-term effects such as neurological damage. The International Dementia Alliance is a group of dementia specialists from six European countries and this paper is a summary of our experience of the effects of COVID-19 on our populations. Experience from England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland highlight the differential response from health and social care systems and the measures taken to maximise support for older people and those with dementia. The common themes include recognition of the atypical presentation of COVID-19 in older people (and those with dementia) need to pay particular attention to the care of people with dementia in care homes; the recognition of the toll that isolation can bring on older people and the complexity of the response by health and social services to minimise the negative impact of the pandemic. Potential new ways of working identified during the pandemic could serve as a positive legacy from the crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , England , Europe , France , Germany , Humans , Netherlands , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
11.
Aging Ment Health ; 25(8): 1373-1375, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838408

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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