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1.
Mar Policy ; 140: 105054, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773631

ABSTRACT

The human response to the COVID-19 pandemic set in motion an unprecedented shift in human activity with unknown long-term effects. The impacts in marine systems are expected to be highly dynamic at local and global scales. However, in comparison to terrestrial ecosystems, we are not well-prepared to document these changes in marine and coastal environments. The problems are two-fold: 1) manual and siloed data collection and processing, and 2) reliance on marine professionals for observation and analysis. These problems are relevant beyond the pandemic and are a barrier to understanding rapidly evolving blue economies, the impacts of climate change, and the many other changes our modern-day oceans are undergoing. The "Our Ocean in COVID-19″ project, which aims to track human-ocean interactions throughout the pandemic, uses the new eOceans platform (eOceans.app) to overcome these barriers. Working at local scales, a global network of ocean scientists and citizen scientists are collaborating to monitor the ocean in near real-time. The purpose of this paper is to bring this project to the attention of the marine conservation community, researchers, and the public wanting to track changes in their area. As our team continues to grow, this project will provide important baselines and temporal patterns for ocean conservation, policy, and innovation as society transitions towards a new normal. It may also provide a proof-of-concept for real-time, collaborative ocean monitoring that breaks down silos between academia, government, and at-sea stakeholders to create a stronger and more democratic blue economy with communities more resilient to ocean and global change.

2.
Online Information Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1704752

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how factual information and misinformation are being shared on Twitter by identifying types of social media users who initiate the information diffusion process. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a mixed methodology approach to analyze tweets with COVID-19-related hashtags. First, a social network analysis was conducted to identify social media users who initiate the information diffusion process, followed by a quantitative content analysis of tweets by users with more than 5K retweets to identify what COVID-19 claims, factual information, misinformation and disinformation was shared on Twitter. Findings: Results found very little misinformation and disinformation distributed widely. While health experts and journalists shared factual COVID-19-related information, they were not receiving optimum engagement. Tweets by citizens focusing on personal experience or opinions received more retweets and likes compared to any other sender type. Similarly, celebrities received more replies than any other sender type. Practical implications: This study helps medical experts and government agencies understand the type of COVID-19 content and communication being shared on social media for population health purposes. Originality/value: This study offers insight into how social media users engage with COVID-19-related information on Twitter and offers a typology of categories of information shared about the pandemic. Peer review: The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-03-2021-0143/. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

3.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50(1 SUPPL):472, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1691841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the COVID pandemic, and recently updated practice guidelines for neuromuscular infusion (NMBI) use during ARDS, the practices/perceptions of ICU physicians regarding NMBI use during ARDS may not be evidence-based. METHODS: We developed, tested, and electronicallyadministered a questionnaire (9 questions/70 subquestions) to medical and surgical ICU fellow and attending physicians at 3 geographically-diverse U.S. health systems (U Arizona, U Chicago, Mass General Brigham). The IRB-approved questionnaire focused on adults with moderate-severe ARDS (PaO2:FiO2 < 150) with critical hypoxemia where dyssynchrony causes were addressed and PEEP optimized. Weekly reminders were sent twice. RESULTS: Respondents [173/342(50.5%)] primarily worked as an attending 117(75%) in a medical ICU 94(60%) for 12±8 weeks/year. COVID+ ARDS patients were twice as likely to receive a NMBI (56±37 vs. 28±19%;p< 0.01). Respondents somewhat/strongly agreed a NMBI: should be reserved until after a trial of deep sedation 142 (82%) or proning 59 (34%), be dose-titrated based on trainof- four monitoring 107(62%);and effectively reduced dyssynchrony 149(86%), plateau pressure 106(62%) and barotrauma 102(60%). Few respondents [23(18%)] somewhat/strongly agreed a NMBI should be initiated at ARDS onset 20(12%) or administered at a fixed-dose 12(7%). Only 2/14 potential NMBI risks were frequently reported to be of high/very high concern: prolonged muscle weakness during steroids 135(79%) and paralysis awareness due to inadequate sedation 114(67%). Only absence of dyssynchrony 146(87%) was frequently reported to be a very/extremely important NMBI titration target. Train-of-four 78(46%) and BIS 39(23%) monitoring and plateau pressure 67(40%) or PaO2:FiO2 64(38%) evaluation were deemed less important. Absence of dysschrony 93(56%) and use ≥48 hours 87(53%) were preferred NMBI stopping criteria. For COVID+ patients, few felt reduced self-extubation and COVID aerosolization during reintubation 16(9%) or reduced ventilator adjustments 7(5%) were very/extremely important reasons for NMBI use. CONCLUSIONS: Most physicians agree NMBI infusions in ARDS should be reserved until after trials of deep sedation. Paralysis awareness and prolonged muscle weakness are the greatest NMBI use concerns. Unique considerations in COVID+ ARDS patients exist.

4.
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; 259(11):1251-1252, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1663099
6.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-333, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594004

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospitalacquired infectious diarrhoea. High bed occupancy rates in acute hospitals correlate with an increased incidence of healthcare-associated CDI (HA-CDI). The COVID-19 pandemic led to changes within our healthcare system, including cessation of elective procedures and reduced presentations for non-COVID-19-related illnesses. Our aim was to determine if improved hand-hygiene, increased use of personal protective equipment (PPE), social distancing and reduced hospital occupancy observed during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic also impacted on rates of HA-CDI. Methods: We defined the COVID-19 outbreak period as March to May 2020 and identified newly-acquired HA-CDI cases during the same periods in 2018, 2019 and 2020, using the hospital C. difficile database. HA-CDI was defined as per national case definitions. Electronic records were used to assess patient demographics and biochemical markers. Hospital antimicrobial consumption and hand-hygiene audit data for the study period and corresponding in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA. Results Fifty patients with HA-CDI were identified. Chi-squared analysis with Yates correction demonstrated a decrease in newly-acquired HACDI during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic period when compared to the same period in 2018 and 2019 (p=0.029);(Table 1). Conclusion During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, static antimicrobial use, reduced hospital occupancy, improved hand hygiene and the use of PPE resulted in a decline in HA-CDI;demonstrating the importance of hospital activity and infection prevention and control measures on HA-CDI during an inpatient stay. (Table presented)

8.
PLoS ONE ; 16(2), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410574

ABSTRACT

Public health measures to reduce COVID-19 transmission include masking in public places, physical distancing, staying home when ill, avoiding high-risk locations, using a contact tracing app, and being willing to take a COVID-19 vaccine. However, adoption of these measures varies greatly. We aimed to improve health messaging to increase adherence to public health behaviours to reduce COVID-19 transmission by: (1) determining attitudes towards public health measures and current behaviours;(2) identifying barriers to following public health measures;and, (3) identifying public health communication strategies. We recruited participants from a random panel of 3000 phone numbers across Alberta to fill a predetermined quota: age (18-29;30-59;60+ years), geographic location (urban;rural), and whether they had school-age children. Two researchers coded and themed all transcripts. We performed content analysis and in-depth thematic analysis. Nine focus groups were conducted with 2-8 participants/group in August-September, 2020. Several themes were identified: (1) importance of public health measures;(2) compliance with public health measures;(3) critiques of public health messaging;and (4) suggestions for improving public health messaging. Physical distancing and masking were seen as more important than using a contact tracing app. There were mixed views around willingness to take COVID-19 vaccine. Current public health messaging was perceived as conflicting. Participants felt that consistent messaging and using social media to reach younger people would be helpful. In conclusion, these findings provide insights that can be used to inform targeted (e.g., by age, current behaviour) public health communications to encourage behaviors that reduce COVID-19 transmission.

10.
Irish Medical Journal ; 114(5), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1326537

ABSTRACT

Presentation A 40-year-old healthcare worker (HCW) presented with cough, headache, sore throat, fatigue and myalgia seven months after primary infection with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Symptoms were milder and recovery was faster on the second episode. Diagnosis Reinfection with phylogenetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Treatment Management involved symptomatic treatment and self-isolation. Discussion The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is not well characterised. Infection control precautions may still be required in healthcare facilities, even in previously infected and possibly in vaccinated individuals while SARS-CoV-2 remains in circulation. Further research on the nature and duration of immunity is required to inform public health and infection control policy.

13.
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; 258(8):806-809, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1210400

ABSTRACT

Government and private veterinarians have already been assisting in several states across the country

14.
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1 SUPPL 1):94, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1193904

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 20% of COVID-19 patients require hospitalization including 5% needing intensive care. We compared outcomes among patients admitted to an academic community hospital undergoing ICU admission for COVID either directly from emergency department or from general medical units. METHODS: Data were collected after IRB exemption from APACHE IV database and electronic medical records including demographics;administrative data;baseline inflammatory, metabolic and coagulation biomarkers significantly associated with primary outcome;ICU day 1 APACHE IV score and Acute Physiology Score (APS);length of stay (LOS);ICU readmission within same hospital visit;and ICU and hospital mortality. Primary outcome was hospital mortality. Continuous data were summarized with mean [?SD] or median [IQR] respectively compared using t-test or Kruskal-Wallis Test. Discrete data were summarized as counts (proportions) compared with chi-square. Two-tailed p<.05 was significant. RESULTS: Of 244 COVID patients discharged between March 23 and July 28, 2020, respectively 26 and 40 underwent direct (2.6 [1.0-3.4] hrs), or indirect admission (49.8 [19.2 - 136.3] hrs) to ICU. Intergroup similar baseline data were pooled (63±2 years, 58% male, 61% White, 14% Black, 25% Other);temperature 99.0±1.2 °F;SpO2 95±3%;C-reactive protein 14.7±8.5 mg/dL;ferritin 1292±1741 ng/mL;lactate dehydrogenase 455±195 U/L;D-dimer 3.9±6.9 mg/L;prothrombin time 13.4±5.1 seconds;hemoglobin 13.0±2.3 gm/dL;APACHE IV score (66±29);APS (52±27);mechanical ventilation days 14.7±10.9 days;ICU LOS 11.6±10.7 days;and hospital LOS 20.9±14.6 days. There was no difference in number of comorbidities (3.6±1.6) or Elixhauser comorbidity score (9.9±9.8) across ICU admission pathways. Chronic condition prevalence included hypertension (56%), diabetes (28%), obesity (28%) and hypothyroidism (16%). COVID directed drug class treatment was similar. Six patients readmitted to ICU were indirect admissions. ICU (39.4%) and hospital (42.4%) mortality were independent of ICU trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes were similar in patients admitted to the ICU directly versus those who decompensated and required transfer from medical floors. Given equivalent biomarker risk at presentation, this finding evinces care quality depth of our safety net.

15.
European Journal of Tourism Research ; 28, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1184191

ABSTRACT

Young people seek meaningful, participative, and co-created experiences. Yet young tourists seem less attracted than expected by tourism offers that emphasise involvement, such as sustainable tourism. A possible explanation lies in values and travel motivations specific to young travellers. Although travel motivations have been extensively researched, few have attempted to categorize the resulting list of travel motivations. Research on values is systematized but has limited predictive power because it is generally conducted without reference to immediate causes of behaviour such as motivations. This study proposes to segment young travellers using values and motivations simultaneously and, to account for socio-economic conditions, to investigate young travellers in China and Italy. Multivariate analysis revealed clusters that offer strong opportunities for a sustainable tourism proposition both in the Italian and the Chinese sample. Out of the other identified clusters, some offer similar opportunities yet require a different framing of the tourism offer, while some seem only interested in hedonic experiences. How this more sophisticated picture of young tourists may account for their tepidity towards sustainable tourism is discussed, alongside limitations, suggestions for future research, and a reflection about the re-start of European tourism after the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2021 The Author(s).

16.
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; 258(4):332-333, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1119796
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