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BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040881, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455706


INTRODUCTION: Driving is one of the main modes of transport with safe driving requiring a combination of visual, cognitive and physical skills. With population ageing, the number of people living with vision impairment is set to increase in the decades ahead. Vision impairment may negatively impact an individual's ability to safely drive. The association between vision impairment and motor vehicle crash involvement or driving participation has yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of vision-related interventions aimed at decreasing crashes and driving errors has not been synthesised. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search will be conducted for relevant studies on Medline (Ovid), EMBASE and Global Health from their inception to March 2020 without date or geographical restrictions. Two investigators will independently screen abstracts and full texts using Covidence software with conflicts resolved by a third investigator. Data extraction will be conducted on all included studies, and their quality assessed to determine the risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Outcome measures include crash risk, driving cessation and surrogate measures of driving safety (eg, driving errors and performance). The results of this review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guideline. Meta-analysis will be undertaken for outcomes with sufficient data and reported following the Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. Where statistical pooling is not feasible or appropriate, narrative summaries will be presented following the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis in systematic reviews guideline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will only report on published data thus no ethics approval is required. Results will be included in the Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health, published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020172153.

Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vision, Ocular
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039458, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455705


INTRODUCTION: Universal health coverage (UHC) includes the dimensions of equity in access, quality services that improve health and protection against financial hardship. Cataract continues to be the leading cause of blindness globally, despite cataract surgery being an efficacious intervention. The aim of this scoping review is to map the nature, extent and global distribution of data on cataract services for UHC in terms of equity, access, quality and financial protection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The search will be constructed by an Information Specialist and undertaken in MEDLINE, Embase and Global Health databases. We will include all published non-interventional primary research studies and systematic reviews that report a quantitative assessment of access, equity, quality or financial protection of cataract surgical services for adults at the subnational, national, regional or global level from population-based surveys or routinely collected health service data since 1 January 2000 and published through to February 2020.Screening and data charting will be undertaken using Covidence systematic review software. Titles and abstracts of identified studies will be screened by two authors independently. Full-text articles of potentially relevant studies will be obtained and reviewed independently by two authors against the inclusion criteria. Any discrepancies between the authors will be resolved by discussion, and with a third author as necessary. A data charting form will be developed and piloted on three studies by three authors and amendments made as necessary. Data will be extracted by two reviewers independently and summarised narratively and using maps. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was not sought as the scoping review will only use published and publicly accessible data. The review will be published in an open access peer-reviewed journal. A summary of the results will be developed for website posting, stakeholder meetings and inclusion in the ongoing Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health.

Cataract , Universal Health Insurance , Delivery of Health Care , Global Health , Humans , Review Literature as Topic
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254761, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319517


BACKGROUND: Nepal was under a severe lockdown for several months in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. There were concerns regarding misinformation circulating on social media. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge and awareness of COVID-19 amongst eye care professionals in Nepal during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODOLOGY: We invited 600 participants from 12 ophthalmic centres across Nepal to complete a qualitative, anonymous online survey. Altogether, 25 questions (both open and closed-ended) were used. An overall performance score was calculated from the average of the 12 "Knowledge" questions for all the participants. RESULTS: Of the 600 eye care professionals invited, 310 (51%) participated in the survey. The symptoms of COVID-19 were known to 94%, whilst only 49% of the participants were aware how the disease was transmitted, with 54% aware that anyone can be infected with SARS-CoV-2. Almost 98% of participants recognized the World Health Organization's (WHO) awareness message, but surprisingly, 41% of participants felt that consumption of hot drinks helps to destroy the virus, in contradiction to WHO information. Importantly, 95% of the participants were aware of personal protective equipment (PPE) and what the acronym stands for. Social distancing was felt to be key to limiting the disease spread; whilst 41% disagreed that PPE should be mandatory for eye care practitioners. The mean overall "Knowledge" performance score was 69.65% (SD ± 22.81). CONCLUSION: There is still considerable scope to improve the knowledge of COVID-19 amongst ophthalmic professionals in Nepal. Opinion is also split on measures to prevent transmission, with misinformation potentially fuelling confusion. It is recommended to follow WHO and national guidelines, whilst seeking published scientific evidence behind any unofficial statements, to accurately inform one's clinical practice.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Eye , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Young Adult