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1.
Microorganisms ; 11(5)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232951

ABSTRACT

Rare cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (PA-CAP) were reported in non-immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) necrotizing cavitary CAP with a fatal outcome in a 53-year-old man previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who was admitted for dyspnea, fever, cough, hemoptysis, acute respiratory failure and a right upper lobe opacification. Six hours after admission, despite effective antibiotic therapy, he experienced multi-organ failure and died. Autopsy confirmed necrotizing pneumonia with alveolar hemorrhage. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for PA serotype O:9 belonging to ST1184. The strain shares the same virulence factor profile with reference genome PA01. With the aim to better investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of PA-CAP, we considered the literature of the last 13 years concerning this topic. The prevalence of hospitalized PA-CAP is about 4% and has a mortality rate of 33-66%. Smoking, alcohol abuse and contaminated fluid exposure were the recognized risk factors; most cases presented the same symptoms described above and needed intensive care. Co-infection of PA-influenza A is described, which is possibly caused by influenza-inducing respiratory epithelial cell dysfunction: the same pathophysiological mechanism could be assumed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Considering the high rate of fatal outcomes, additional studies are needed to identify sources of infections and new risk factors, along with genetic and immunological features. Current CAP guidelines should be revised in light of these results.

2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123807, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322666

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A growing number of evidences suggest that the combination of hyperinflammation, dysregulated T and B cell response and cytokine storm play a major role in the immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19. IL-6 is one of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines and its levels are increased during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several observational and randomized studies demonstrated that tocilizumab, an IL-6R blocker, improves survival in critically ill patients both in infectious disease and intensive care units. However, despite transforming the treatment options for COVID-19, IL-6R inhibition is still ineffective in a fraction of patients. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the impact of two doses of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 who responded or not to the treatment by analyzing a panel of cytokines, chemokines and other soluble factors, along with the composition of peripheral immune cells, paying a particular attention to T and B lymphocytes. Results: We observed that, in comparison with non-responders, those who responded to tocilizumab had different levels of several cytokines and different T and B cells proportions before starting therapy. Moreover, in these patients, tocilizumab was further able to modify the landscape of the aforementioned soluble molecules and cellular markers. Conclusions: We found that tocilizumab has pleiotropic effects and that clinical response to this drug remain heterogenous. Our data suggest that it is possible to identify patients who will respond to treatment and that the administration of tocilizumab is able to restore the immune balance through the re-establishment of different cell populations affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, highlighting the importance of temporal examination of the pathological features from the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cytokines , Biomarkers
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123724, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269509

ABSTRACT

The formation of a robust long-term antigen (Ag)-specific memory, both humoral and cell-mediated, is created following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination. Here, by using polychromatic flow cytometry and complex data analyses, we deeply investigated the magnitude, phenotype, and functionality of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune memory in two groups of healthy subjects after heterologous vaccination compared to a group of subjects who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovered patients show different long-term immunological profiles compared to those of donors who had been vaccinated with three doses. Vaccinated individuals display a skewed T helper (Th)1 Ag-specific T cell polarization and a higher percentage of Ag-specific and activated memory B cells expressing immunoglobulin (Ig)G compared to those of patients who recovered from severe COVID-19. Different polyfunctional properties characterize the two groups: recovered individuals show higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing one or two cytokines simultaneously, while the vaccinated are distinguished by highly polyfunctional populations able to release four molecules, namely, CD107a, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin (IL)-2. These data suggest that functional and phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity differ in recovered COVID-19 individuals and vaccinated ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , B-Lymphocytes , Memory B Cells , Interferons , Immunoglobulin G
5.
J Clin Med ; 12(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228143

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the introduction of SDD in a structured protocol for VAP prevention was effective in reducing the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in COVID-19 patients without changes in the microbiological pattern of antibiotic resistance. This observational pre-post study included adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for severe respiratory failure related to SARS-CoV-2 admitted in three COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in an Italian hospital from 22 February 2020 to 8 March 2022. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) was introduced from the end of April 2021 in the structured protocol for VAP prevention. The SDD consisted of a tobramycin sulfate, colistin sulfate, and amphotericin B suspension applied in the patient's oropharynx and the stomach via a nasogastric tube. Three-hundred-and-forty-eight patients were included in the study. In the 86 patients (32.9%) who received SDD, the occurrence of VAP decreased by 7.7% (p = 0.192) compared to the patients who did not receive SDD. The onset time of VAP, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms AP, the length of invasive mechanical ventilation, and hospital mortality were similar in the patients who received and who did not receive SDD. The multivariate analysis adjusted for confounders showed that the use of SDD reduces the occurrence of VAP (HR 0.536, CI 0.338-0.851; p = 0.017). Our pre-post observational study indicates that the use of SDD in a structured protocol for VAP prevention seems to reduce the occurrence of VAP without changes in the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in COVID-19 patients.

6.
ASAIO J ; 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227279

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective multicenter observational study is to test the feasibility and safety of a combined extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) plus renal replacement therapy (RRT) system to use an ultraprotective ventilator setting while maintaining (1) an effective support of renal function and (2) values of pH within the physiologic limits in a cohort of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of 9 participating hospitals, 27 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation undergoing ECCO2R-plus-RRT treatment were included in the analysis. The treatment allowed to reduce VT from 6.0 ± 0.6 mL/kg at baseline to 4.8 ± 0.8, 4.6 ± 1.0, and 4.3 ± 0.3 mL/kg, driving pressure (ΔP) from 19.8 ± 2.5 cm H2O to 14.8 ± 3.6, 14.38 ± 4.1 and 10.2 ± 1.6 cm H2O after 24 hours, 48 hours, and at discontinuation of ECCO2R-plus-RRT (T3), respectively (p < 0.001). PaCO2 and pH remained stable. Plasma creatinine decreased over the study period from 3.30 ± 1.27 to 1.90 ± 1.30 and 1.27 ± 0.90 mg/dL after 24 and 48 hours of treatment, respectively (p < 0.01). No patient-related events associated with the extracorporeal system were reported. These data show that in patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS and AKI, ECCO2R-plus-RRT is effective in allowing ultraprotective ventilator settings while maintaining an effective support of renal function and values of pH within physiologic limits.

7.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines recommend the tocilizumab use in patients with a CRP of >7.5 mg/dL. We aimed to estimate the causal effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab on mortality overall and after stratification for PaO2/FiO2 ratio and CRP levels. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary endpoint was day 28 mortality. Survival analysis was conducted to estimate the conditional and average causal effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab vs. glucocorticoids alone using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models with a time-varying variable for the intervention. The hypothesis of the existence of effect measure modification by CRP and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was tested by including an interaction term in the model. RESULTS: In total, 992 patients, median age 69 years, 72.9% males, 597 (60.2%) treated with monotherapy, and 395 (31.8%), adding tocilizumab upon respiratory deterioration, were included. At BL, the two groups differed for median values of CRP (6 vs. 7 mg/dL; p < 0.001) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (276 vs. 235 mmHg; p < 0.001). In the unadjusted analysis, the mortality was similar in the two groups, but after adjustment for key confounders, a significant effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab was observed (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.90). Although the study was not powered to detect interactions (p = 0.41), there was a signal for glucocorticoids + tocilizumab to have a larger effect in subsets, especially participants with high levels of CRP at intensification. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that glucocorticoids + tocilizumab vs. glucocorticoids alone confers a survival benefit only in patients with a CRP > 7.5 mg/dL prior to treatment initiation and the largest effect for a CRP > 15 mg/dL. Large randomized studies are needed to establish an exact cut-off for clinical use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 70, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inspiratory effort could translate into self-inflicted lung injury, thus worsening clinical outcomes of spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Although esophageal manometry is a reliable method to estimate the magnitude of inspiratory effort, procedural issues significantly limit its use in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study is to describe the correlation between esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) and nasal (ΔPnos) as a potential measure of inspiratory effort in spontaneously breathing patients with de novo ARF. METHODS: From January 1, 2021, to September 1, 2021, 61 consecutive patients with ARF (83.6% related to COVID-19) admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of the University Hospital of Modena (Italy) and candidate to escalation of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) were enrolled. Clinical features and tidal changes in esophageal and nasal pressure were recorded on admission and 24 h after starting NRS. Correlation between ΔPes and ΔPnos served as primary outcome. The effect of ΔPnos measurements on respiratory rate and ΔPes was also assessed. RESULTS: ΔPes and ΔPnos were strongly correlated at admission (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) and 24 h apart (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). The nasal plug insertion and the mouth closure required for ΔPnos measurement did not result in significant change of respiratory rate and ΔPes. The correlation between measures at 24 h remained significant even after splitting the study population according to the type of NRS (high-flow nasal cannulas [R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001] or non-invasive ventilation [R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with ARF, nasal pressure swings did not alter respiratory mechanics in the short term and were highly correlated with esophageal pressure swings during spontaneous tidal breathing. ΔPnos might warrant further investigation as a measure of inspiratory effort in patients with ARF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03826797 . Registered October 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 590, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960513

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but few detailed data are available concerning immunological changes after infection in aged individuals. Here we describe main immune characteristics in 31 patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection who were >70 years old, compared to 33 subjects <60 years of age. Differences in plasma levels of 62 cytokines, landscape of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T cell repertoire, transcriptome of central memory CD4+ T cells, specific antibodies are reported along with features of lung macrophages. Elderly subjects have higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more circulating plasmablasts, reduced plasmatic level of anti-S and anti-RBD IgG3 antibodies, lower proportions of central memory CD4+ T cells, more immature monocytes and CD56+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, lower percentages of circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh), antigen-specific cTfh cells with a less activated transcriptomic profile, lung resident activated macrophages that promote collagen deposition and fibrosis. Our study underlines the importance of inflammation in the response to SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that inflammaging, coupled with the inability to mount a proper anti-viral response, could exacerbate disease severity and the worst clinical outcome in old patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cytokines , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , T Follicular Helper Cells
10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957212

ABSTRACT

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 represents a very huge global threat due to a higher incidence rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients and almost 50% of the 30-day mortality rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the first pathogen involved but uncommon non-fermenter gram-negative organisms such as Burkholderia cepacea and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia have emerged as other potential etiological causes. Against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative microorganisms, Ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) is considered a first-line option, even more so in case of a ceftolozane/tazobactam resistance or shortage. The aim of this report was to describe our experience with CZA in a case series of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU with VAP due to difficult-to-treat (DTT) P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacea, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and to compare it with data published in the literature. A total of 23 patients were treated from February 2020 to March 2022: 19/23 (82%) VAPs were caused by Pseudomonas spp. (16/19 DTT), 2 by Burkholderia cepacea, and 6 by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; 12/23 (52.1%) were polymicrobial. Septic shock was diagnosed in 65.2% of the patients and VAP occurred after a median of 29 days from ICU admission. CZA was prescribed as a combination regimen in 86% of the cases, with either fosfomycin or inhaled amikacin or cotrimoxazole. Microbiological eradication was achieved in 52.3% of the cases and the 30-day overall mortality rate was 14/23 (60.8%). Despite the high mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients, CZA, especially in combination therapy, could represent a valid treatment option for VAP due to DTT non-fermenter gram-negative bacteria, including uncommon pathogens such as Burkholderia cepacea and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938841

ABSTRACT

Specific T cells are crucial to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, avoid reinfection and confer protection after vaccination. We have studied patients with severe or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to patients who recovered from a severe or moderate infection that had occurred about 4 months before the analyses. In all these subjects, we assessed the polyfunctionality of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by quantifying cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with different SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools covering different proteins (M, N and S). In particular, we quantified the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells simultaneously producing interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-17, granzyme B, and expressing CD107a. Recovered patients who experienced a severe disease display high proportions of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells producing Th1 and Th17 cytokines and are characterized by polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells. A similar profile was found in patients experiencing a moderate form of COVID-19 pneumonia. No main differences in polyfunctionality were observed among the CD8+ T cell compartments, even if the proportion of responding cells was higher during the infection. The identification of those functional cell subsets that might influence protection can thus help in better understanding the complexity of immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911148

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: -1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: -4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI -0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062; CT: 1.43, 95% CI -0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051; respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR.

13.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 706-713, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in immunocompetent critically ill patients is common and relates to a worsening outcome. In this large observational study, we evaluated the incidence and the risk factors associated with CMV reactivation and its effects on mortality in a large cohort of patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to three ICUs from February 2020 to July 2021 were included. The patients were screened at ICU admission and once or twice per week for quantitative CMV-DNAemia in the blood. The risk factors associated with CMV blood reactivation and its association with mortality were estimated by adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: CMV blood reactivation was observed in 88 patients (20.4%) of the 431 patients studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score (HR 1031, 95% CI 1010-1053, p = 0.006), platelet count (HR 0.0996, 95% CI 0.993-0.999, p = 0.004), invasive mechanical ventilation (HR 2611, 95% CI 1223-5571, p = 0.013) and secondary bacterial infection (HR 5041; 95% CI 2852-8911, p < 0.0001) during ICU stay were related to CMV reactivation. Hospital mortality was higher in patients with (67.0%) than in patients without (24.5%) CMV reactivation but the adjusted analysis did not confirm this association (HR 1141, 95% CI 0.757-1721, p = 0.528). CONCLUSION: The severity of illness and the occurrence of secondary bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of CMV blood reactivation, which, however, does not seem to influence the outcome of COVID-19 ICU patients independently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Critical Illness , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Antibiotics ; 11(6):826, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894123

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: −1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: −4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI −0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062;CT: 1.43, 95% CI −0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051;respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR.

15.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869825

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis of small and large vessels is reported as a key player in COVID-19 severity. However, host genetic determinants of this susceptibility are still unclear. Congenital Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uncleaved ultra-large vWF and thrombotic microangiopathy, frequently triggered by infections. Carriers are reported to be asymptomatic. Exome analysis of about 3000 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects of different severities, belonging to the GEN-COVID cohort, revealed the specific role of vWF cleaving enzyme ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We report here that ultra-rare variants in a heterozygous state lead to a rare form of COVID-19 characterized by hyper-inflammation signs, which segregates in families as an autosomal dominant disorder conditioned by SARS-CoV-2 infection, sex, and age. This has clinical relevance due to the availability of drugs such as Caplacizumab, which inhibits vWF-platelet interaction, and Crizanlizumab, which, by inhibiting P-selectin binding to its ligands, prevents leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation at the site of vascular damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAM Proteins/genetics , ADAM Proteins/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , von Willebrand Factor/chemistry , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
16.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863917

ABSTRACT

The ratio between arterial blood partial pressure of oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was largely used for grading and managing the respiratory failure in non-mechanically ventilated COVID-19. In these patients, the assessment of the true FiO2 in the inspired mixture may be difficult with consequent inaccuracies in PaO2/FiO2 assessment. In 30 severe COVID-19 patients, we observed that PaO2/FiO2 values measured immediately before and after the transition from high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) to one commercially available Venturi mask O2 therapy were similar (bias mean value 0, standard deviation 23 mmHg). In COVID-19 patients recovering from respiratory failure, PaO2/FiO2 is not different whether measured with a commercially available Venturi mask or HFNC.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 848639, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793008

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of excessive inspiratory effort in promoting alveolar and pleural rupture resulting in air leak (AL) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced acute respiratory failure (ARF) while on spontaneous breathing is undetermined. Methods: Among all patients with COVID-19 related ARF admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) and receiving non-invasive respiratory support, those developing an AL were and matched 1:1 [by means of PaO2/FiO2 ratio, age, body mass index-BMI and subsequent organ failure assessment (SOFA)] with a comparable population who did not (NAL group). Esophageal pressure (ΔPes) and dynamic transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL) swings were compared between groups. Risk factors affecting AL onset were evaluated. The composite outcome of ventilator-free-days (VFD) at day 28 (including ETI, mortality, tracheostomy) was compared between groups. Results: Air leak and NAL groups (n = 28) showed similar ΔPes, whereas AL had higher ΔPL (20 [16-21] and 17 [11-20], p = 0.01, respectively). Higher ΔPL (OR = 1.5 95%CI[1-1.8], p = 0.01), positive end-expiratory pressure (OR = 2.4 95%CI[1.2-5.9], p = 0.04) and pressure support (OR = 1.8 95%CI[1.1-3.5], p = 0.03), D-dimer on admission (OR = 2.1 95%CI[1.3-9.8], p = 0.03), and features suggestive of consolidation on computed tomography scan (OR = 3.8 95%CI[1.1-15], p = 0.04) were all significantly associated with AL. A lower VFD score resulted in a higher risk (HR = 3.7 95%CI [1.2-11.3], p = 0.01) in the AL group compared with NAL. RICU stay and 90-day mortality were also higher in the AL group compared with NAL. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing patients with COVID-19 related ARF, higher levels of ΔPL, blood D-dimer, NIV delivery pressures and a consolidative lung pattern were associated with AL onset.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779941

ABSTRACT

Although it is now widely accepted that host inflammatory response contributes to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, the pathways and mechanisms driving disease severity and clinical outcome remain poorly understood. In the effort to identify key soluble mediators that characterize life-threatening COVID-19, we quantified 62 cytokines, chemokines and other factors involved in inflammation and immunity in plasma samples, collected at hospital admission, from 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 disease who were stratified on the basis of clinical outcome (mechanical ventilation or death by day 28). Our data confirm that age, as well as neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, procalcitonin, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase are strongly associated with the risk of fatal COVID-19. In addition, we found that cytokines related to TH2 regulations (IL-4, IL-13, IL-33), cell metabolism (lep, lep-R) and interferons (IFNα, IFNß, IFNγ) were also predictive of life-threatening COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Chemokines , Humans , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054069, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The first COVID-19-19 epidemic wave was over the period of February-May 2020. Since 1 October 2020, Italy, as many other European countries, faced a second wave. The aim of this analysis was to compare the 28-day mortality between the two waves among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Standard survival analysis was performed to compare all-cause mortality within 28 days after hospital admission in the two waves. Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Cox regression model analysis were used. The effect of wave on risk of death was shown by means of HRs with 95% CIs. A sensitivity analysis around the impact of the circulating variant as a potential unmeasured confounder was performed. SETTING: University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Patients admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first (22 February-31 May 2020) and second (1 October-31 December 2020) waves were included. RESULTS: During the two study periods, a total of 1472 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to our hospital, 449 during the first wave and 1023 during the second. Median age was 70 years (IQR 56-80), 37% women, 49% with PaO2/FiO2 <250 mm Hg, 82% with ≥1 comorbidity, median duration of symptoms was 6 days. 28-day mortality rate was 20.0% (95% CI 16.3 to 23.7) during the first wave vs 14.2% (95% CI 12.0 to 16.3) in the second (log-rank test p value=0.03). After including key predictors of death in the multivariable Cox regression model, the data still strongly suggested a lower 28-day mortality rate in the second wave (aHR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90, p value=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with severe pneumonia, the 28-day mortality appeared to be reduced by 36% during the second as compared with the first wave. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may have contributed to this improved survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(3): 484-502, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555185

ABSTRACT

To better understand the mechanisms at the basis of neutrophil functions during SARS-CoV-2, we studied patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. They had high blood proportion of degranulated neutrophils and elevated plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), elastase, and MPO-DNA complexes, which are typical markers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Their neutrophils display dysfunctional mitochondria, defective oxidative burst, increased glycolysis, glycogen accumulation in the cytoplasm, and increase glycogenolysis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (ΗΙF-1α) is stabilized in such cells, and it controls the level of glycogen phosphorylase L (PYGL), a key enzyme in glycogenolysis. Inhibiting PYGL abolishes the ability of neutrophils to produce NET. Patients displayed significant increases of plasma levels of molecules involved in the regulation of neutrophils' function including CCL2, CXCL10, CCL20, IL-18, IL-3, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ. Our data suggest that metabolic remodelling is vital for the formation of NET and for boosting neutrophil inflammatory response, thus, suggesting that modulating ΗΙF-1α or PYGL could represent a novel approach for innovative therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Glycogen Phosphorylase, Liver Form/blood , Granulocytes/immunology , Granulocytes/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/blood , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation , Peroxidase/blood , Respiratory Burst , Severity of Illness Index
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