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1.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 32(2): 020901, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798676

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several laboratory tests are characteristically altered in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but are not totally accurate in predicting the disease outcome. The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is quickly released directly at inflammation sites by many immune cell types. Previous studies have shown that PTX3 correlated with disease severity in various inflammatory conditions. Our study investigated the use of PTX3 as a potential marker of COVID-19 severity and compared its performance in detecting a more severe form of the disease with that of routine laboratory parameters. Materials and methods: Stored serum samples of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases that had been obtained at hospital admission were retrospectively analysed. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay was considered a surrogate endpoint of severe COVID-19. Pentraxin 3 was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: A total of 96 patients were recruited from May 1st, 2020 to June 30th, 2020; 75/96 were transferred to ICU. Pentraxin 3 was higher in ICU vs non-ICU patients (35.86 vs 10.61 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the only significant laboratory predictor of ICU stay was PTX3 (OR: 1.68 (1.19-2.29), P = 0.003), after controlling for comorbidities. The Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis showed that PTX3 had a higher accuracy compared to C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), ferritin in identifying ICU patients (AUC of PTX3 = 0.98; CRP = 0.66; LD = 0.70; ferritin = 0.67, P < 0.001). A cut-off of PTX3 > 18 ng/mL yielded a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100% in identifying patients requiring ICU. Conclusion: High values of PTX3 predict a more severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Serum Amyloid P-Component
2.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(10): e87-e91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562002

ABSTRACT

GOALS: The present survey from the Italian Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SIED-Società Italiana di Endoscopia Digestiva) was aimed at reporting infection control practice and outcomes at Digestive Endoscopy Units in a high-incidence area. BACKGROUND: Lombardy was the Italian region with the highest coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) prevalence, at the end of March 2020 accounting for 20% of all worldwide deaths. Joint Gastro-Intestinal societies released recommendations for Endoscopy Units to reduce the risk of the contagion. However, there are few data from high-prevalence areas on adherence to these recommendations and on their efficacy. METHODS: A survey was designed by the Lombardy section of SIED to analyze (a) changes in activity and organization, (b) adherence to recommendations, (c) rate of health care professionals' (HCP) infection during the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: In total, 35/61 invited centers (57.4%) participated; most modified activities were according to recommendations and had filtering face piece 2/filtering face piece 3 and water-repellent gowns available, but few had negative-pressure rooms or provided telephonic follow-up; 15% of HCPs called in sick and 6% had confirmed COVID-19. There was a trend (P=0.07) toward different confirmed COVID-19 rates among endoscopists (7.9%), nurses (6.6%), intermediate-care technicians (3.4%), and administrative personnel (2.2%). There was no correlation between the rate of sick HCPs and COVID-19 incidence in the provinces and personal protective equipment availability and use, whereas an inverse correlation with hospital volume was found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to recommendations was rather good, though a minority were able to follow all recommendations. Confirmed COVID-19 seemed higher among endoscopists and nurses, suggesting that activities in the endoscopy rooms are at considerable viral spread risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Infection Control , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388907

ABSTRACT

We report onset, course, correlations with comorbidities, and diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal swab in 539 individuals suspected to carry SARS-COV-2 admitted to the hospital of Crema, Italy. All individuals underwent clinical and laboratory exams, SARS-COV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab, and chest X-ray and/or computed tomography (CT). Data on onset, course, comorbidities, number of drugs including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (sartans), follow-up swab, pharmacological treatments, non-invasive respiratory support, ICU admission, and deaths were recorded. Among 411 SARS-COV-2 patients (67.7% males) median age was 70.8 years (range 5-99). Chest CT was performed in 317 (77.2%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 304 (96%). Fatality rate was 17.5% (74% males), with 6.6% in 60-69 years old, 21.1% in 70-79 years old, 38.8% in 80-89 years old, and 83.3% above 90 years. No death occurred below 60 years. Non-invasive respiratory support rate was 27.2% and ICU admission 6.8%. Charlson comorbidity index and high C-reactive protein at admission were significantly associated with death. Use of ACE inhibitors or sartans was not associated with outcomes. Among 128 swab negative patients at admission (63.3% males) median age was 67.7 years (range 1-98). Chest CT was performed in 87 (68%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 76 (87.3%). Follow-up swab turned positive in 13 of 32 patients. Using chest CT at admission as gold standard on the entire study population of 539 patients, nasopharyngeal swab had 80% accuracy. Comorbidity network analysis revealed a more homogenous distribution 60-40 aged SARS-COV-2 patients across diseases and a crucial different interplay of diseases in the networks of deceased and survived patients. SARS-CoV-2 caused high mortality among patients older than 60 years and correlated with pre-existing multiorgan impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(6): 682-688, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a huge impact on healthcare systems, resulting in many routine diagnostic procedures either being halted or postponed. AIMS: To evaluate whether the diagnoses of colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancers have been impacted by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy. METHODS: A survey designed to collect the number of histologically-proven diagnoses of the three cancers in gastroenterology services across Italy from January 1 to October 31 in 2017-2020. Non-parametric ANOVA for repeated measurements was applied to compare distributions by years and macro-areas. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, in 2020 gastric cancer diagnoses decreased by 15.9%, CRC by 11.9% and pancreatic by 9.9%. CRC distributions showed significant differences between all years, stomach cancer between 2018 and 2020 and 2019-2020, and pancreatic cancer only between 2017 and 2019. The 2019-2020 comparison showed fewer CRC diagnoses in the North (-13.7%), Center (-16.5%) and South (-4.1%), fewer stomach cancers in the North (-19.0%) and South (-9.4%), and fewer pancreatic cancers in the North (-14.1%) and Center (-4.7%), with an increase in the South (+12.3%). Distributions of CRC and gastric cancer were significantly different between all years in the North. CONCLUSIONS: This survey highlights the concerning effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnostic yield of gastroenterology services for stomach, colorectal and pancreatic cancers in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Digestive System Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System , Digestive System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Digestive System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/trends , Gastroenterology/methods , Gastroenterology/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Auton Neurosci ; 229: 102734, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778433

ABSTRACT

We describe clinical and laboratory findings in 35 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab experiencing one or multiple syncope at disease onset. Clinical neurologic and cardiologic examination, and electrocardiographic findings were normal. Chest computed tomography showed findings consistent with interstitial pneumonia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia. Patients who presented with syncope showed significantly lower heart rate as compared to 68 SARS-CoV-2 positive that did not. Such poorer than expected compensatory heart rate increase may have led to syncope based on individual susceptibility. We speculate that SARS-CoV-2 could have caused angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor internalization in the nucleus of the solitary tract and other midbrain nuclei, impairing baroreflex and chemoreceptor response, and inhibiting the compensatory tachycardia during acute hypocapnic hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Syncope/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hypocapnia/virology , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 45: 156-161, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713140

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In this work, the survival and mortality data of 54 consecutive patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency imputable to viral SARS - CoV - 2 infection were analyzed and shared, after a critical review of the evidence in order to optimize the most dedicated clinical and treatment strategy, for a future 'targeted' management in the care of the possible return flu outbreak. METHODS: At our Emergency Department of the Crema Hospital, from the beginning of the pandemic until the end of June 2020, 54 consecutive patients admitted to ICU suffering from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and severe respiratory distress (ARDS) attributable to viral SARS - CoV - 2 infection were recruited. The recruitment criterion was based on refractory hypoxia, general condition and clinical impairment, comorbidities and CT images. The incoming parameters of the blood chemistry and radiology investigations and the timing of the gold - tracheal intubation were compared. Medical therapy was based on the application of shared protocols. RESULTS: The onset of symptoms was varyng, i.e. within the range of 1-14 days. The average time from the admission to the emergency room to the admission to intensive care was approximately 120 h. The average number of days of hospitalization in the ICU was 28 days. With a majority of male patients, the most significant age group was between 60 and 69 years. There were 21 deaths and, compared to the survivors, the deceased ones were older at an average age of about 67 years (vs an average age of the survivors of about 59 years). From the available data entering the ICU, the surviving patients presented average better values of oximetry and blood gas analysis, with a lower average dosage of D-Dimer than the deceased. Ones with a presence of bilateral pneumonia in all patients, the worsening of the ARDS occurred in 31 patients. 9 out of 25 patients early intubated died, while 12 out of 23 patients died when intubation was performed after 24 h of non-invasive ventilation. The presence of multiple comorbidities was shown in 17 of 28 patients and revealed an additional adverse prognostic factor. Also, more than one complication in the same patient were detected; after respiratory worsening, renal failure was more frequently found in 16 patients. Some particular complications such as lesions induced by ventilation with barotrauma mechanism (VILI), ischemic heart disease and the appearance of central and peripheral neurological events were detected too. CONSIDERATIONS: SARS - CoV - 2 disease is caused by a new coronavirus that has its main route of transmission through respiratory droplets and close contact, resulting in a sudden onset of the clinical syndrome with acute respiratory infection (SARI) and severe respiratory distress (ARDS). But it can also appear with other symptoms such as gastrointestinal or neurological events, as to be considered as a disease with multisystem phenotype. This pathology evolves towards a serious form of systemic disease from an acute lung damage to venous and arterial thromboembolic complications and multi-organ failure, mostly associated with high mortality. All patients received empirical or targeted antibiotic therapy for prevention and control of infections of potential pathogens, together with low molecular weight heparin therapy. The majority of patients was subjected to the off - label protocol with antivirals and hydroxychloroquine therapy, we used cortisone support therapy under surveillance and in 3 cases the protocol with anti - IL6 monoclonal antibody (Tolicizumab). In a simplified classification of the tomographic examination of the chest, mostly 3D and 2C lesions were found in the deceased patients with a prevalence of severe and moderate forms, whilst in the survivors the distribution appears with a prevalence of medium and moderate forms. Among the intubated patients, 21 patients, all suffering from worsening ARDS, died whilst there was no mortality in patients subjected to non-invasive ventilation it so. The heterogeneity of the respiratory syndromes and the presence of multiple comorbidities represent an unfortunate prognostic factor. Among the complications, besides the respiratory worsening, renal failure, liver failure and the state of sepsis were most frequently found; less frequent complications were lesions induced by ventilation with a barotrauma mechanism, ischemic heart disease, the appearance of central neurological events of sensory alterations, meningo - encephalitis and cerebral hemorrhage, and peripheral neurological events with polyneuro - myopathies. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the prognosis due to lung damage induced, protective ventilation remains the necessary treatment during severe hypoxia in patients with SARS - CoV - 2. The essential prerequisite remains the search for optimal 'customized' values since conditions can vary from patient to patient and, in the same patient, during different times of ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: In these extraordinary circumstances, our reality was among the most affected and was able to hold the impact thanks to the immediate great response set in place by the operators, although it costed us an effort especially the one to try to guarantee a high quality level of assistance and care compared to the huge wave of patients in seriously bad conditions. Further research on this heterogeneous pathology and data sharing could help identify a more dedicated clinical decision-making and treatment pathway that, together with a resource planning, would allow us to better face any new disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(3): 030402, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709641

ABSTRACT

After December 2019 outbreak in China, the novel Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has very quickly overflowed worldwide. Infection causes a clinical syndrome encompassing a wide range of clinical features, from asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic course to acute respiratory distress and death. In a very recent work we preliminarily observed that several laboratory tests have been shown as characteristically altered in COVID-19. We aimed to use the Corona score, a validated point-based algorithm to predict the likelihood of COVID-19 infection in patients presenting at the Emergency rooms. This approach combines chest images-relative score and several laboratory parameters to classify emergency room patients. Corona score accuracy was satisfactory, increasing the detection of positive patients' rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Negative Results , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards
9.
J Hepatol ; 73(5): 1063-1071, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a major health threat to healthy individuals and those with comorbidities, but its impact on patients with cirrhosis is currently unknown. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical outcome of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective study, patients with cirrhosis and a confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were enrolled between 1st and 31th March 2020. Clinical and biochemical data at diagnosis of COVID-19 and at the last outpatient visit were obtained through review of medical records. RESULTS: Fifty patients with cirrhosis and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled (age 67 years, 70% men, 38% virus-related, 52% previously compensated cirrhosis). At diagnosis, 64% of patients presented fever, 42% shortness of breath/polypnea, 22% encephalopathy, 96% needed hospitalization or a prolonged stay if already in hospital. Respiratory support was necessary in 71%, 52% received antivirals, 80% heparin. Serum albumin significantly decreased, while bilirubin, creatinine and prothrombin time significantly increased at COVID-19 diagnosis compared to last available data. The proportion of patients with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥15 increased from 13% to 26% (p = 0.037), acute-on-chronic liver failure and de novo acute liver injury occurred in 14 (28%) and 10 patients, respectively. Seventeen patients died after a median of 10 (4-13) days from COVID-19 diagnosis, with a 30-day-mortality rate of 34%. The severity of lung and liver (according to CLIF-C, CLIF-OF and MELD scores) diseases independently predicted mortality. In patients with cirrhosis, mortality was significantly higher in those with COVID-19 than in those hospitalized for bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with liver function deterioration and elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. LAY SUMMARY: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a major health threat to healthy individuals and those with comorbidities. Herein, we assessed its impact on patients with cirrhosis. Infection with COVID-19 was associated with liver function deterioration and elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 2375-2377, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437178

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major worldwide threat caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly spreading to a global pandemic. As of May 11, 2020, 4,176,346 cases have been reported worldwide, 219,814 in Italy, and of them, 81,871 occurred in the Lombardy region.1 Although the respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 have been widely described, the impact on the gastrointestinal (GI) system remains less clear. The reported prevalence of digestive symptoms ranges from 3% to 79%, depending on the setting,2-5 but data on GI endoscopic and histologic findings in COVID-19 patients are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the GI endoscopic and histologic findings in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Arch Med Res ; 51(6): 598-599, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-423996

ABSTRACT

Infection of novel Coronavirus has been declared pandemic by the WHO and now is a world public health crisis. Laboratory activity becames essential for the timely diagnosis. Few parameters, such Lymphocytes count, SaO2 and CRP serum level can be used to assess the severity of COVID-19 in emergency room.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
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