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2.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 1946-1950, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Preschool wheezers are at high risk of recurrent attacks triggered by respiratory viruses, sometimes exacerbated by exposure to allergens and pollution. Because of the COVID-19 infection, the lockdown was introduced, but the effects on preschool wheezers are unknown. We hypothesized that there would be an improvement in outcomes during the lockdown, and these would be lost when the lockdown was eased. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent medical visits before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. We recorded the childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT) and a clinical questionnaire. Data on symptoms, the need for medications and the use of healthcare resources were recorded. We compared these data with retrospective reports from the preceding year and prospectively acquired questionnaires after lockdown. RESULTS: We studied 85 preschool wheezers, mean age 4.9 years. During the lockdown, cACT score was significantly higher (median 25 vs. 23); families reported a dramatic drop in wheezing episodes (51 vs. none), significant reductions in the day and nighttime symptoms, including episodes of shortness of breath (p < .0001); the use of salbutamol and oral corticosteroids (OCS) dropped significantly (p < .0001) and 79 (95%) patients needed no OCS bursts during the lockdown. Finally, patients had significantly fewer extra medical examinations, as well as fewer Emergency Room visits (p < .0001). All were improved compared with the same time period from the previous year, but outcomes worsened significantly again after lockdown (cACT median: 22). CONCLUSIONS: During the national lockdown, children with persistent preschool wheeze showed a significant clinical improvement with reduction of respiratory symptoms, medication use for exacerbations, and use of healthcare resources. This trend reversed when lockdown restrictions were eased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Sounds , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergens , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511281
4.
Arch Dis Child ; 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501686

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an urgent reconfiguration of our difficult asthma (DA) service. We rapidly switched to virtual clinics and rolled out home spirometry based on clinical need. From March to August 2020, 110 patients with DA (68% virtually) were seen in clinic, compared with March-August 2019 when 88 patients were seen face-to-face. There was DA clinic cancellation/non-attendance (16% vs 43%; p<0.0003). In patients with home spirometers, acute hospital admissions (6 vs 26; p<0.01) from March to August 2020 were significantly lower compared with the same period in 2019. There was no difference in the number of courses of oral corticosteroids or antibiotics prescribed (47 vs 53; p=0.81). From April to August 2020, 50 patients with DA performed 253 home spirometry measurements, of which 39 demonstrated >20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, resulting in new action plans in 87% of these episodes. In our DA cohort, we demonstrate better attendance rates at virtual multidisciplinary team consultations and reduced hospital admission rates when augmented with home spirometry monitoring.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053268, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and acceptability of a short-term reminder and incentives intervention in adolescents with low adherence to asthma medications. METHODS: Mixed-methods feasibility study in a tertiary care clinic. Adolescents recruited to a 24-week programme with three 8-weekly visits, receiving electronic reminders to prompt inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) inhalation through a mobile app coupled with electronic monitoring devices (EMD). From the second visit, monetary incentives based on adherence of ICS inhalation: £1 per dose, maximum £2 /day, up to £112/study, collected as gift cards at the third visit. End of study interviews and questionnaires assessing perceptions of asthma and ICS, analysed using the Perceptions and Practicalities Framework. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents (11-18 years) with documented low ICS adherence (<80% by EMD), and poor asthma control at the first clinic visit. RESULTS: 10 out of 12 adolescents approached were recruited (7 males, 3 females, 12-16 years). Eight participants provided adherence measures up to the fourth visits and received rewards. Mean study duration was 281 days, with 7/10 participants unable to attend their fourth visit due to COVID-19 lockdown. Only 3/10 participants managed to pair the app/EMD up to the fourth visit, which was associated with improved ICS adherence (from 0.51, SD 0.07 to 0.86, SD 0.05). Adherence did not change in adolescents unable to pair the app/EMD. The intervention was acceptable to participants and parents/guardians. Exit interviews showed that participants welcomed reminders and incentives, though expressed frustration with app/EMD technological difficulties. Participants stated the intervention helped through reminding ICS doses, promoting self-monitoring and increasing motivation to take inhalers. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention using electronic reminders and incentives through an app coupled with an EMD was feasible and acceptable to adolescents with asthma. A pilot randomised controlled trial is warranted to better estimate the effect size on adherence, with improved technical support for the EMD.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Electronics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Reward , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
6.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 373, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1208688

ABSTRACT

Coroner urges action to prevent further asthma deaths

7.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(9): 900-902, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085266

ABSTRACT

Children with severe asthma may be treated with biologic agents normally requiring 2-4 weekly injections in hospital. In March 2020, due to COVID-19, we needed to minimise hospital visits. We assessed whether biologics could be given safely at home. The multidisciplinary team identified children to be considered for home administration. This was virtually observed using a video link, and home spirometry was also performed. Feedback was obtained from carers and young people. Of 23 patients receiving biologics, 16 (70%) families agreed to homecare administration, 14 administered by parents/patients and 2 by a local nursing team. Video calls for omalizumab were observed on 56 occasions, mepolizumab on 19 occasions over 4 months (April-July). Medication was administered inaccurately on 2/75 occasions without any adverse events. Virtually observed home biologic administration in severe asthmatic children, supported by video calls and home spirometry, is feasible, safe and is positively perceived by children and their families.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(6): 1975-1979, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083097

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-COV-2 virus fortunately resulted in few children suffering from severe disease. However, the collateral effects on the COVID-19 pandemic appear to have had significant detrimental effects on children affected and young people. There are also some positive impacts in the form of reduced prevalence of viral bronchiolitis. The new strain of SARS-COV-2 identified recently in the UK appears to have increased transmissibility to children. However, there are no large vaccine trials set up in children to evaluate safety and efficacy. In this short communication, we review the collateral effects of COVID-19 pandemic in children and young people. We highlight the need for urgent strategies to mitigate the risks to children due to the COVID-19 pandemic. What is Known: • Children and young people account for <2% of all COVID-19 hospital admissions • The collateral impact of COVID-19 pandemic on children and young people is devastating • Significant reduction in influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the southern hemisphere What is New: • The public health measures to reduce COVID-19 infection may have also resulted in near elimination of influenza and RSV infections across the globe • A COVID-19 vaccine has been licensed for adults. However, large scale vaccine studies are yet to be initiated although there is emerging evidence of the new SARS-COV-2 strain spreading more rapidly though young people. • Children and young people continue to bear the collateral effects of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(12): 3252-3267, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic has been emerged as a cardinal public health problem. Children have their own specific clinical features; notably, they seem to be escaping the severe respiratory adverse effects. The international scientific community is rapidly carrying out studies, driving to the need to reassess knowledge of the disease and therapeutic strategies. AIM: To assess the characteristics of COVID-19 infected children worldwide of all ages, from neonates to children and adolescents, and how they differ from their adult counterparts. SEARCH STRATEGY: An electronic search in PubMed was conducted, using combinations of the following keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children. The search included all types of articles written in English between January 1, 2019 until August 15, 2020. RESULTS: The search identified 266 relevant articles. Children were mainly within family clusters of cases and have relatively milder clinical presentation compared with adults; children were reported to have better outcomes with a significantly lower mortality rate. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms while pneumonia was the cardinal respiratory manifestation of infected children. Laboratory results and thoracic imaging give varying results. CONCLUSIONS: Children were mainly family cluster cases and usually presented with a mild infection, although cases presented with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome are becoming more apparent. Studies determining why the manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are so variable may help to gain a better understanding of the disease and accelerate the development of vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Vomiting/physiopathology
12.
Radiology ; 296(1): 172-180, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38290

ABSTRACT

With more than 900 000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50 000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Global Health , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Societies, Medical , Triage , Video Recording
13.
Chest ; 158(1): 106-116, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634902

ABSTRACT

With more than 900,000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50,000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Humans , International Cooperation , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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