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1.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004807

ABSTRACT

Lung transplant (LT) has become a viable option for COVID-19 patients suffering from end-stage Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). This analysis sought to describe the early national experience of COVID-19 patients who received LT and compare transplant characteristics and short-term outcomes of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS LT recipients. We queried the Organ Procurement and Transplantation database for adults (≥18 years old) receiving LT from January 2009 to March 31, 2022 with diagnoses of COVID-19 or ARDS. We identified 353 COVID-19 and 64 non-COVID-19 ARDS LT recipients. COVID-19 recipients were older (median age: 51, interquartile range [40-57] years vs 41 [26-52]; P < 0.001), more predominantly male (78% (n = 274) vs 55% (n = 35), P < 0.001), and had higher body mass indices (median 27.2 interquartile range [24.5-30.9] vs 25.4 [22.1-28.6]; P < 0.01) than non-COVID-19 ARDS recipients. COVID-19 LT recipients were less frequently reliant on extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation at 72 hours after transplant (26% (n = 80) vs 31% (n = 15), P < 0.001), and were less frequently dependent on dialysis post-transplant than non-COVID-19 ARDS LT recipients (14% (n = 43) vs 23% (n = 14); P = 0.01). Survival at 90 days post-transplant was comparable for the non-COVID ARDS (90%, n = 54) and COVID-19 (94%, n = 202) LT recipients with available follow-up (P = 0.17). LT appears to be a viable therapy for COVID-19 patients with end-stage lung disease. COVID-19 LT and non-COVID-19 ARDS LT recipients have comparable 90 days post-transplant survival.

2.
ASAIO J ; 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985168

ABSTRACT

In appropriately selected patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) may offer a promising bridge to lung recovery or lung transplantation if lung recovery fails. Although the cannulation technique for VV ECMO via a right internal jugular (RIJ) dual-lumen catheter (DLC) requires expertise and guidance by either fluoroscopy or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), it offers theoretical circulatory support advantages by using bicaval venous drainage to deliver oxygenated blood systemically with minimal recirculation as compared with the femoral vein and RIJ dual-site cannula configuration. In addition, patients are often too unstable to transport safely to an operating room or catheterization laboratory, and fluoroscopy is not always readily available to guide RIJ DLC placement. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of a safe, bedside protocol for VV ECMO cannulation via a RIJ DLC under TEE guidance. We will report our center's experience (March 30, 2020 to November 21, 2021) and discuss important hemodynamic, safety, and infection control considerations.

3.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(2): 292-298, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory disease (ARDS) increasingly receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. While ECMO has been shown to increase risk of stroke, few studies have examined this association in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to characterise neurological events during ECMO support in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Systematic review of cohort and large case series of COVID-19 patients who received ECMO support. DATA SOURCES: Studies retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Web of Science, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, and medRχiv from inception to November 11, 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were a) Adult population (>18 year old); b) Positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 with active COVID-19 disease; c) ECMO therapy due to COVID-19 ARDS; and d) Neurological events and outcome described while on ECMO support. We excluded articles when no details of neurologic events were available. RESULTS: 1,322 patients from 12 case series and retrospective cohort studies were included in our study. The median age was 49.2, and 75% (n=985) of the patients were male. Diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia were the most common comorbidities (24% and 20%, respectively). Most (95%, n=1,241) patients were on venovenous ECMO with a median P:F ratio at the time of ECMO cannulation of 69.1. The prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), ischaemic stroke, and hypoxic ischaemic brain injury (HIBI) was 5.9% (n=78), 1.1% (n=15), and 0.3% (n=4), respectively. The overall mortality of the 1,296 ECMO patients in the 10 studies that reported death was 36% (n=477), and the mortality of the subset of patients who had a neurological event was 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological injury is a concern for COVID-19 patients who receive ECMO. Further research is required to explore how neuromonitoring protocols can inform tailored anticoagulation management and improve survival in COVID-19 patients with ECMO support.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
4.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 119, 2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the safety and feasibility of imaging of the brain with a point-of-care (POC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Early detection of acute brain injury (ABI) is critical in improving survival for patients with ECMO support. METHODS: Patients from a single tertiary academic ECMO center who underwent head CT (HCT), followed by POC brain MRI examinations within 24 h following HCT while on ECMO. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility, defined as completion of MRI examination without serious adverse events (SAEs). Secondary outcome was the quality of MR images in assessing ABIs. RESULTS: We report 3 consecutive adult patients (median age 47 years; 67% male) with veno-arterial (n = 1) and veno-venous ECMO (n = 2) (VA- and VV-ECMO) support. All patients were imaged successfully without SAEs. Times to complete POC brain MRI examinations were 34, 40, and 43 min. Two patients had ECMO suction events, resolved with fluid and repositioning. Two patients were found to have an unsuspected acute stroke, well visualized with MRI. CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with VA- or VV-ECMO support can be safely imaged with low-field POC brain MRI in the intensive care unit, allowing for the assessment of presence and timing of ABI.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Transplant Direct ; 7(10): e759, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405093

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a variable course across the United States. Understanding its evolving impact on heart and lung transplantation (HT and LT) will help with planning for next phases of this pandemic as well as future ones. METHODS: We used Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from before the pandemic to predict the number of waitlist registrations and transplants expected to occur between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2020 (if no pandemic had occurred), and compared these expectations to observed rates. The observed era was divided into wave 1 (March 15-May 31), wave 2 (June 1-September 30), and wave 3 (October 1-December 31). We used multilevel Poisson regression to account for center- and state-level COVID-19 incidence. RESULTS: During wave 1, rates of heart registrations and transplants were 28% (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-0.77]) and 13% (IRR: 0.87 [95% CI, 0.80-0.93]) lower than expected; lung registrations and transplants were 40% (IRR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.54-0.66]) and 28% (IRR: 0.72 [95% CI, 0.66-0.79]) lower. Decreases were greatest in states with the highest incidence where registrations were 53% (IRR: 0.47 [95% CI, 0.36-0.62]) and 59% (IRR: 0.41 [95% CI, 0.29-0.58]) and transplants were 57% (IRR: 0.43 [95% CI, 0.31-0.60]) and 58% (IRR: 0.42 [95% CI, 0.29-0.62]) lower than expected. Whereas HT largely recovered during waves 2 and 3, LT continued to fall short of expectations through the end of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in the US substantially reduced thoracic transplant access. Ongoing evaluation of the risks and benefits of this dramatic practice change is critical to inform clinical decision-making moving forward.

6.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(12): 1579-1588, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While several studies have observed that solid organ transplant recipients experience diminished antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, data specific to heart and lung transplant (HT/LT) recipients remains sparse. METHODS: US adult HT and LT recipients completed their vaccine series between January 7 and April 10, 2021. Reactogencity and SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody were assessed after a priming dose (D1) and booster dose (D2). Modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to evaluate associations between participant characteristics and antibody development. RESULTS: Of 134 heart recipients, there were 38% non-responders (D1-/D2-), 48% booster responders (D1-/D2+), and 14% priming dose responders (D1+/D2+). Of 103 lung recipients, 64% were non-responders, 27% were booster responders, and 9% were priming dose responders. Lung recipients were less likely to develop antibodies (p < .001). Priming dose antibody response was associated with younger recipient age (p = .04), transplant-to-vaccination time ≥6 years (p < .01), and lack of anti-metabolite maintenance immunosuppression (p < .001). Pain at injection site was the most commonly reported reaction (85% after D1, 76% after D2). Serious reactions were rare, the most common being fatigue (2% after D1 and 3% after D2). No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: HT and LT recipients experienced diminished antibody response following vaccination; reactogenicity was comparable to that of the general population. LT recipients may exhibit a more impaired antibody response than HT recipients. While current recommendations are to vaccinate eligible candidates and recipients, further studies characterizing the cell-mediated immune response and clinical efficacy of these vaccines in this population are needed.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Heart Transplantation , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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