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J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 3): S372-S374, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240048
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 913-917, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708595


Modeling complements surveillance data to inform coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health decision making and policy development. This includes the use of modeling to improve situational awareness, assess epidemiological characteristics, and inform the evidence base for prevention strategies. To enhance modeling utility in future public health emergencies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the Infectious Disease Modeling and Analytics Initiative. The initiative objectives are to: (1) strengthen leadership in infectious disease modeling, epidemic forecasting, and advanced analytic work; (2) build and cultivate a community of skilled modeling and analytics practitioners and consumers across CDC; (3) strengthen and support internal and external applied modeling and analytic work; and (4) working with partners, coordinate government-wide advanced data modeling and analytics for infectious diseases. These efforts are critical to help prepare the CDC, the country, and the world to respond effectively to present and future infectious disease threats.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2035057, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012156


Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is readily transmitted person to person. Optimal control of COVID-19 depends on directing resources and health messaging to mitigation efforts that are most likely to prevent transmission, but the relative importance of such measures has been disputed. Objective: To assess the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions in the community that likely occur from persons without symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model assessed the relative amount of transmission from presymptomatic, never symptomatic, and symptomatic individuals across a range of scenarios in which the proportion of transmission from people who never develop symptoms (ie, remain asymptomatic) and the infectious period were varied according to published best estimates. For all estimates, data from a meta-analysis was used to set the incubation period at a median of 5 days. The infectious period duration was maintained at 10 days, and peak infectiousness was varied between 3 and 7 days (-2 and +2 days relative to the median incubation period). The overall proportion of SARS-CoV-2 was varied between 0% and 70% to assess a wide range of possible proportions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from presymptomatic, never symptomatic, and symptomatic individuals. Results: The baseline assumptions for the model were that peak infectiousness occurred at the median of symptom onset and that 30% of individuals with infection never develop symptoms and are 75% as infectious as those who do develop symptoms. Combined, these baseline assumptions imply that persons with infection who never develop symptoms may account for approximately 24% of all transmission. In this base case, 59% of all transmission came from asymptomatic transmission, comprising 35% from presymptomatic individuals and 24% from individuals who never develop symptoms. Under a broad range of values for each of these assumptions, at least 50% of new SARS-CoV-2 infections was estimated to have originated from exposure to individuals with infection but without symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: In this decision analytical model of multiple scenarios of proportions of asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19 and infectious periods, transmission from asymptomatic individuals was estimated to account for more than half of all transmissions. In addition to identification and isolation of persons with symptomatic COVID-19, effective control of spread will require reducing the risk of transmission from people with infection who do not have symptoms. These findings suggest that measures such as wearing masks, hand hygiene, social distancing, and strategic testing of people who are not ill will be foundational to slowing the spread of COVID-19 until safe and effective vaccines are available and widely used.

COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , SARS-CoV-2