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1.
Rev Clin Esp ; 2022 Feb 22.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused global changes that affect the daily life of the world's population, with a direct impact on individuals' physical and mental health as well as on their social and recreational habits. METHODS: This study aimed to retrospectively analyze the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients attended to for acute poisoning in a hospital emergency department (ED) at three different periods of time: pre-pandemic (2019), after strict lockdown of the population in Spain (2020), and post-pandemic (2021). We analyzed 2 months (June and July) in each period. RESULTS: A total of 1,182 cases of acute poisoning were included. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, during lockdown, the number of patients with acute poisoning decreased (2019: 1.9% vs. 2020: 1.5%; p<0.01); the ratio of men to women increased (2.0 vs. 1.4; p=0.02); and the mean age of patients increased (2019: 31.4 vs. 2020: 41.3; p<0.001), a trend which continued in 2021 (38.3). Poisoning with suicidal intention also increased during the pandemic (2019: 8.71% vs. 2020: 21.0%; p<0.01) whereas poisonings with a recreational intention declined (2019: 76.1% vs. 2020: 62.0%; p<0.01) with a non-significant increase in 2021 (69.0%, p=0.07). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic generated clinical and epidemiological changes in the acute poisonings attended to in a hospital emergency department during the various phases of the pandemic.

2.
Revista clinica espanola ; 2022.
Article in Spanish | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695069

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha provocado cambios globales que afectan a la vida diaria de la población mundial, con un impacto directo sobre la salud física y mental de los individuos, así como en sus hábitos sociales y recreativos. Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de aspectos demográficos y clínicos de los pacientes atendidos por intoxicaciones agudas en un Servicio de Urgencias hospitalario durante tres períodos distintos: prepandemia (2019), tras el confinamiento domiciliario (2020) y en período pospandémico (2021), analizando en cada uno los meses de junio y julio. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.182 intoxicaciones agudas. Con relación a la etapa prepandémica, el número de intoxicados disminuyó durante el confinamiento (2019: 1,9% vs. 2020: 1,5%;p<0,01), incrementándose la ratio varón/mujer (2,0 vs. 1,4, p=0,02) y la edad media (2019: 31,4 vs. 2020: 41,3;p<0,001), tendencia que se mantuvo en el año 2021 (38,3). La intoxicación con motivación suicida también aumentó en dicho período (2019: 8,71% vs. 2020: 21,0%;p<0,01), mientras que las lúdicas decrecieron (2019: 76,1% vs. 2020: 62,0%;p<0,01), con un aumento no significativo en el último año 2021 (69,0%, p = 0,07). Conclusiones: La pandemia por COVID19 ha generado cambios clínicos y epidemiológicos en las intoxicaciones agudas atendidas en un Servicio de Urgencias hospitalario durante las distintas fases de la pandemia.

3.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2735-2748, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is often associated with hyper-inflammation. The cytokine-storm-like is one of the targets of current therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). High Interleukin-6 (IL6) blood levels have been identified in severe COVID-19 disease, but there are still uncertainties regarding the actual role of anti-IL6 antagonists in COVID-19 management. Our hypothesis was that the use of sarilumab plus corticosteroids at an early stage of the hyper-inflammatory syndrome would be beneficial and prevent progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized patients under standard oxygen therapy and laboratory evidence of hyper-inflammation to receive sarilumab plus usual care (experimental group) or usual care alone (control group). Corticosteroids were given to all patients at a 1 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone for at least 3 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients progressing to severe respiratory failure (defined as a score in the Brescia-COVID19 scale ≥ 3) up to day 15. RESULTS: A total of 201 patients underwent randomization: 99 patients in the sarilumab group and 102 patients in the control group. The rate of patients progressing to severe respiratory failure (Brescia-COVID scale score ≥ 3) up to day 15 was 16.16% in the Sarilumab group versus 15.69% in the control group (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.48-2.20). No relevant safety issues were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with Covid-19 pneumonia, who were under standard oxygen therapy and who presented analytical inflammatory parameters, an early therapeutic intervention with sarilumab plus standard of care (including corticosteroids) was not shown to be more effective than current standard of care alone. The study was registered at EudraCT with number: 2020-002037-15.

4.
Trials ; 21(1): 794, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In some patients, acute, life-threatening respiratory injury produced by viruses such as SARS-CoV and other viral pneumonia are associated with an over-exuberant cytokine release. Elevated levels of blood IL-6 had been identified as a one of the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. Anti-IL6 inhibitors are among the therapeutic armamentarium for preventing the fatal consequences of acute respiratory and multi organ failure in around 20% of the COVID-19 infected patients. At present, their use is prioritized to patients with severe interstitial pneumonia (Brescia-COVID Scale-COVID 2-3) with hyperinflammation as determined by the presence of elevated IL6 and/or d-dimer, or progressive d-dimer increase, in patients who otherwise are subsidiary to ICU admission. However, many uncertainties remain on the actual role of anti-IL6 inhibitors in this setting, and whether current use and timing is the right one. There is the hypothesis that the use of anti-IL6 inhibitors at an earlier state during the hyperinflammatory syndrome would be beneficial and may avoid progressing to ARDS. On the other hand, the standard of care has changed and nowadays the use of corticosteroids has become part of the SOC in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Our limited experience suggests that better treatment outcomes can be achieved when combining IL6-inhibitors (e.g. sarilumab) with corticosteroids. The aim of the present study is to evaluate if an earlier therapeutic intervention with sarilumab plus SOC (including corticosteroids) may be more effective than current standard of care alone, in preventing progression to respiratory failure in COVID-19 infected patients with interstitial pneumonia. This study will also provide supportive evidence to that provided by currently ongoing studies on the efficacy and safety of sarilumab in this clinical context. TRIAL DESIGN: A phase two multi-center randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: They will be hospitalized patients, of at least 18 years of age, with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have radiographic evidence of pulmonary infiltrates by imaging or rales/crackles on exam and SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air that requires supplemental oxygen. Patients must present elevation of inflammatory parameters (IL-6 > 40 pg/mL or d-dimer >1.0 mcg/ml) or, alternatively, progressive worsening in at least two of these inflammatory parameters in the prior 24-48h: CRP, LDH, serum ferritin, lymphopenia, or d-dimer. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: high oxygen requirements (including face mask with reservoir, non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation), admission to ICU, pregnancy or lactation, allergy or hypersensitivity to sarilumab or corticoesteroids, immunosuppressive antibody therapy within the past 5 months, AST/ALT values > 10 x ULN, neutropenia (< 0.5 x 109/L), severe thrombocytopenia (< 50 x 109/L), sepsis caused by an alternative pathogen, diverticulitis with risk of perforation or ongoing infectious dermatitis. The study will be conducted in several hospitals in Spain. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomised to the experimental arm will receive sarilumab + methylprednisolone plus SOC for COVID-19. Patients included in the control arm will receive methylprednisolone plus SOC for COVID-19. Corticosteroids will be given to all patients at a 1mg/kg/d of methylprednisolone for at least 3 days. Clinical follow-up visits will be performed at 3, 5, and 15 days after treatment randomization. Patients in the control group (SOC group without sarilumab) progressing to Brescia- COVID 2-3 plus inflammatory markers, will be given the option to be rescued with sarilumab at the same doses and, in that case, be included in an open-label phase and be followed up for additional weeks (with visits at 3, 7 and 15 days after sarilumab rescue administration). Patients randomly assigned to sarilumab therapy at baseline progressing to Brescia-COVID 2-3 will be rescued according to local clinical practice protocols. A final follow-up visit will be conducted for all patients at day 29 from randomization, regardless of initial treatment assignment. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary end point is the proportion of patients progressing to either severe respiratory failure (Brescia-COVID ≥2), ICU admission, or death. RANDOMIZATION: Randomization codes were produced by means of the PROC PLAN of the SAS system, with a 1:1 assignment ratio, stratifying by centre and using blocks multiple of 2 elements. The randomization schedule will be managed through the eCRF in a concealed manner. BLINDING (MASKING): All study drugs will be administered as open label. No blinding methods will be used in this trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SIMPLE SIZE): The target sample size will be 200 COVID-19 patients, who will be allocated randomly to control arm (100) and treatment arm (100). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Code: SARTRE Protocol Date: May 05th 2020. Version: 2.0 The study has been approved by the Spanish Competent Authority (AEMPS) as a low intervention clinical trial. Start of recruitment: August, 2020 End of recruitment: May, 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: EudraCT Number: 2020-002037-15 ; Registration date: 26 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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