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1.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2162517

ABSTRACT

Maintaining routine vaccination coverage is essential to avoid outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. We aimed to understand the international impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine vaccination in pregnant women and children aged 0-5-years-old. A systematic review of quantitative and mixed methods studies exploring changes in vaccination coverage, vaccination services, and vaccine confidence since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Google Scholar, World Health Organisation, UK Government Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (including EU and US equivalents), and SAGE Journals were searched between 15-17th June 2021. Selected studies included pregnant women, health professionals, and/or infants aged 0-5-years-old including their parents (population);reported on the Covid-19 pandemic (exposure);presented comparisons with pre-COVID-19 pandemic period (comparator) and reported changes in routine maternal and infant vaccination coverage, services, and confidence (outcomes). Sources published only in non-English language were excluded. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality and risk of bias (ROB), and a narrative synthesis was undertaken. This review has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021262449). 30 studies were included in the review;data from 20 high-income countries (HICs), seven low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and three regional studies (groups of countries). 18 studies had a low ROB, 12 had a higher risk, however both low and high ROB studies showed similar results. Two studies meeting the inclusion criteria discussed changes in routine vaccinations for pregnant women while 29 studies discussed infants. Both groups experienced declines in vaccination coverage (up to -79%) with larger disruptions in the accessibility and delivery of vaccination services reported within LMICs compared to HICs. Changes in vaccine confidence remained unclear. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in decreased vaccine coverage and reduced routine vaccination services for pregnant women and infants, impacts on vaccine confidence requires more research.

2.
Cattle Practice ; 29(1):12-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033861

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to determine if CAM use has potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and support the global efforts against antimicrobial resistance, and to ensure that antimicrobials and other conventional treatment approaches are used where appropriate. 20 farms with a range of management systems, herd sizes and production goals were recruited to this study. Interviews were conducted with 24 farmers through a mixture of face-to-face, telephone and videoconferencing modalities necessitated by movement restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, 16 farms were visited to collect ethnographic participant observational data using ethnographic fieldnotes and photographs. Interviews were conducted using a topic guide and explored participants' experience of CAM, including drivers/barriers to CAM use, experiences of CAM use and how CAM might influence the use of conventional medicine such as antibiotics. Early findings indicate several drivers for UK dairy farmers to use CAM approaches, including their own personal [or friends' and relations'] experiences, the views of influential people and advisors, networks within the farming community and the fact that CAM use allows a greater sense of autonomy in health-based decision making. Farmers often refer to milk buyers and organic guidelines as factors which influence their use of CAM. They further refer to a desire to 'do something' for the animal and to minimise animal welfare related concerns. A range of CAM information sources were also consulted by farmers including, holistic health management organisations/courses, online materials, and pharmacies. Participating farmers associate the use of CAM approaches with other holistic health management practices, human-animal interactions, the actual character and physical characteristics of an animal and animal welfare. This indicates that CAM use is seen by farmers as part of a wider ethos and belief about holistic farming practices and land use. Additionally, data implies that some farmers value their positive personal experiences of CAM use over scientific evidence. In contrast, barriers to CAM use were also identified including: the perception that CAM approaches are reserved specifically for organic systems, little access to CAM and related resources and some existing tensions between farmers and other stakeholders' views. Early findings suggest that farmers are influenced in their use of CAM by a range of individuals within the agriculture community, including veterinary surgeons (some of whom use homeopathic practices), mainstream farming press and pro-CAM organisations and advisors.

3.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 26, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1693872

ABSTRACT

A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) possui elevada incidência na América Latina, com amplo espectro clínico e imagiológico. A forma crônica é a mais prevalente, com o clássico acometimento pulmonar. Há ainda formas menos convencionais, destacando-se o acometimento do Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC). O padrão ouro para o diagnóstico é a visualização do fungo e seu crescimento em cultura de espécimes clínicos. Métodos sorológicos são complementares, com sensibilidade/especificidade variando de 80-95% e 85-100%, respectivamente, a depender dos antígenos utilizados. Homem, 60 anos, procedente do Tocantins, transportador de grãos, tabagista, queixava-se de vertigem há um ano, cefaleia há 5 meses, alteração progressiva da fala, da marcha e paresia em braço E. Tomografia computadorizada (TC) e Ressonância Magnética (RM) de crânio demostravam lesões nodulares volumosas (maior 4 x 3,8 cm), heterogêneas e com edema adjacente em cerebelo D, lobos frontal D e parietal E, sugestivas de neoplasia. TC de tórax com múltiplos nódulos, espessamento e adenomegalias mediastinais. Submetido a biópsia cerebral em hospital oncológico, tendo diagnóstico de COVID-19 na internação. Transferido ao Hospital das Clínicas. Avaliação da infectologia descreveu raio X de tórax com padrão em asa de borboleta e lesão granulomatosa em palato. Raspado da lesão e aspirado traqueal demonstraram leveduras multibrotantes. Histopatológico (AP) da biópsia de SNC foi resgatado e descrevia estruturas leveduriformes, birrefringentes, com brotamentos em roda denteada, compatíveis com PCM. Imunodifusão dupla reagente e cultura positiva para Paracoccidioides spp. Recebeu Anfotericina B desoxicolato por 7 dias e complexo lipídico por mais 20 dias. Obteve alta com melhora da cognição, da fala e da marcha, ainda necessitando auxilio para atividades. Em acompanhamento ambulatorial, paciente sem déficits, comunicativo e sem novas queixas. RM de controle mantém lesões nodulares, com redução significativa do tamanho, do edema e da captação de contraste. Programado Sulfametoxazol Trimetoprima 3cp 12h/12h por 18-24 meses, pela melhor penetração em SNC. A forma neurológica da PCM é de difícil diagnóstico, muitas vezes confundida com neoplasias devido ao seu efeito de massa. A pesquisa direta, AP, cultura e sorologias são métodos diagnósticos disponíveis, que facilitam a definição etiológica. A busca por outros locais de comprometimento, como pulmonar, mucosas e linfonodos podem agilizar o diagnóstico e o tratamento da PCM.

4.
Public Health ; 203: 19-22, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many African countries have reported fewer COVID-19 cases than countries elsewhere. By the end of 2020, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, had <2500 PCR-confirmed cases corresponding to 0.1% of the ∼1.8 million national population. We assessed the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in urban Guinea-Bissau to help guide the pandemic response in Guinea-Bissau. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in a cohort of staff at the Bandim Health Project. METHODS: We measured IgG antibodies using point-of-care rapid tests among 140 staff and associates at a biometric research field station in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau, during November 2020. RESULTS: Of 140 participants, 25 (18%) were IgG-positive. Among IgG-positives, 12 (48%) reported an episode of illness since the onset of the pandemic. Twenty-five (18%) participants had been PCR-tested between May and September; 7 (28%) had been PCR-positive. Four of these seven tested IgG-negative in the present study. Five participants reported that somebody had died in their house, corresponding crudely to an annual death rate of 4.5/1000 people; no death was attributed to COVID-19. Outdoor workers had a lower prevalence of IgG-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the low official number of COVID-19 cases, our serosurvey found a high prevalence of IgG-positivity. Most IgG-positives had not been ill. The official number of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases has thus grossly underestimated the prevalence of COVID-19 during the pandemic. The observed overall mortality rate in households of Bandim Health Project employees was not higher than the official Guinean mortality rate of 9.6/1000 people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Guinea-Bissau/epidemiology , Humans
5.
Ars Veterinaria ; 37(3):128-133, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1478721

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 brought to society a health crisis that drastically affected the global economy and brought more restrictive measures to food supply establishments, which are classified as essential activities. However, they had to adapt to the new hygienic-sanitary operating protocol, established through regulations published by the Federal and State Governments in order to reduce the chances of viral spread. The objective of the study was to evaluate the hygienic and sanitary conditions of fish sold in fish markets in the city of Nova Iguacu/RJ, through questionnaires on the application of good marketing and handling practices, during the lockdown related to the coronavirus pandemic. An observational "checklist" type questionnaire was used to assess the hygienic and sanitary conditions of fish in 13 fish markets located in 7 districts of Nova Iguacu/RJ. It was observed that in 92% of the establishments visited had materials and equipment in disuse in the outdoor area, had failures in conservation, sanitation and adequate maintenance, without vector and pest control, without a suitable container for waste collection, lack of personal cleanliness and did not present the amount of flaky ice adequate to coat the fish. Thus, it was possible to check that the establishments did not follow the basic rules of hygiene and safety of the fish to reduce the dissemination of the coronavirus, confirming that the commercialization of fish in the fish markets visited in the municipality of Nova Iguacu/RJ does not meet the recommended standards of hygiene and packaging of the products sold. Therefore, the relevance of this study is to provide fishmongers in the municipality of Nova Iguacu, practical and viable guidelines for adapting to the legislation, with the main objective of updating and favoring the reinforcement of Good Handling Practices through an illustrative folder distributed later on visits to establishments.

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