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Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022012, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766036


BACKGROUND: Italy has been one of the countries most affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the regional healthcare system has had to quickly adapt its organization to meet the needs of infected patients. This has led to a drastic change in the routine management of non-communicable diseases with a potential long-term impact on patient health care. Therefore, we investigated the management of non-COVID-19 patients across all medical specialities in Italy. METHODS: A PRISMA guideline-based systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus, restricting the search to the main outbreak period in Italy (from February 20 to June 25 2020). We selected articles in English or Italian that detailed changes in the Italian hospital care for non-COVID-19 patients due to the pandemic. Our keywords included all medical specialities combined with our geographical focus (Italy) and COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 4643 potentially eligible studies identified by the search, 247 were included. A decrease in the management of emergencies in non-COVID patients was found together with an increase in mortality. Similarly, non-deferrable conditions met a tendency toward decreased diagnosis. All specialities have been affected by the re-organization of healthcare provision in the hub-and-spoke system and have benefited from telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights the changes in the Italian public healthcare system to tackle the developing health crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of our review may be useful to analyse future directions for the healthcare system in the case of new pandemic scenarios.

Stroke ; 52(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939945


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH). CONCLUSIONS: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT04406090.

COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Europe , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome
J Neurol ; 268(8): 2656-2665, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893275


OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated review of the literature on the neurological manifestations of COVID-19-infected patients METHODS: A PRISMA-guideline-based systematic review was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS. Series reporting neurological manifestations of COVID-19 patients were studied. RESULTS: 39 studies and 68,361 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. Up to 21.3% of COVID-19 patients presented neurological symptoms. Headache (5.4%), skeletal muscle injury (5.1%), psychiatric disorders (4.6%), impaired consciousness (2.8%), gustatory/olfactory dysfunction (2.3%), acute cerebrovascular events (1.4%), and dizziness (1.3%), were the most frequently reported neurological manifestations. Ischemic stroke occurred among 1.3% of COVID-19 patients. Other less common neurological manifestations were cranial nerve impairment (0.6%), nerve root and plexus disorders (0.4%), epilepsy (0.7%), and hemorrhagic stroke (0.15%). Impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular events were reported in 14% and 4% of patients with a severe disease, respectively, and they were significantly higher compared to non-severe patients (p < 0.05). Individual patient data from 129 COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) were extracted: mean age was 64.4 (SD ± 6.2), 78.5% had anterior circulation occlusions, the mean NIHSS was 15 (SD ± 7), and the intra-hospital mortality rate was 22.8%. Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) was required among 63% of patients. CONCLUSION: This updated review of literature, shows that headache, skeletal muscle injury, psychiatric disorders, impaired consciousness, and gustatory/olfactory dysfunction were the most common neurological symptoms of COVID-19 patients. Impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular events were significantly higher among patients with a severe infection. AIS patients required ICU admission in 63% of cases, while intra-hospital mortality rate was close to 23%.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology