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1.
Cell ; 184(16): 4203-4219.e32, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242577

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro, while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Three of 46 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo, increased lung inflammation can rarely occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Haplorhini , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Load , Virus Replication
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009624, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086838

ABSTRACT

A primary goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the consistent elicitation of protective, neutralizing antibodies. While highly similar neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been isolated from multiple HIV-infected individuals, it is unclear whether vaccination can consistently elicit highly similar nAbs in genetically diverse primates. Here, we show in three outbred rhesus macaques that immunization with Env elicits a genotypically and phenotypically conserved nAb response. From these vaccinated macaques, we isolated four antibody lineages that had commonalities in immunoglobulin variable, diversity, and joining gene segment usage. Atomic-level structures of the antigen binding fragments of the two most similar antibodies showed nearly identical paratopes. The Env binding modes of each of the four vaccine-induced nAbs were distinct from previously known monoclonal HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies, but were nearly identical to each other. The similarities of these antibodies show that the immune system in outbred primates can respond to HIV-1 Env vaccination with a similar structural and genotypic solution for recognizing a particular neutralizing epitope. These results support rational vaccine design for HIV-1 that aims to reproducibly elicit, in genetically diverse primates, nAbs with specific paratope structures capable of binding conserved epitopes.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Macaca mulatta
3.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971664

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Pandemics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Macaca/immunology , Male , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trachea , Vaccination
4.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619494

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses (betaCoVs) caused the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, and now the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Vaccines that elicit protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and betaCoVs circulating in animals have the potential to prevent future betaCoV pandemics. Here, we show that immunization of macaques with a multimeric SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) nanoparticle adjuvanted with 3M-052-Alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, batCoVs and the UK B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 mutant virus. Nanoparticle vaccination resulted in a SARS-CoV-2 reciprocal geometric mean neutralization titer of 47,216, and robust protection against SARS-CoV-2 in macaque upper and lower respiratory tracts. Importantly, nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric RBD protein also induced SARS-CoV-1 and batCoV cross-neutralizing antibodies, albeit at lower titers. These results demonstrate current mRNA vaccines may provide some protection from future zoonotic betaCoV outbreaks, and provide a platform for further development of pan-betaCoV nanoparticle vaccines.

5.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442694

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV-1 infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro , while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Nonetheless, three of 31 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo , increased lung inflammation can occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.

6.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055255

ABSTRACT

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has been widely used to characterize HIV-1 genome sequences. There are no algorithms currently that can directly determine genotype and quasispecies population using short HTS reads generated from long genome sequences without additional software. To establish a robust subpopulation, subtype, and recombination analysis workflow, we amplified the HIV-1 3'-half genome from plasma samples of 65 HIV-1-infected individuals and sequenced the entire amplicon (∼4,500 bp) by HTS. With direct analysis of raw reads using HIVE-hexahedron, we showed that 48% of samples harbored 2 to 13 subpopulations. We identified various subtypes (17 A1s, 4 Bs, 27 Cs, 6 CRF02_AGs, and 11 unique recombinant forms) and defined recombinant breakpoints of 10 recombinants. These results were validated with viral genome sequences generated by single genome sequencing (SGS) or the analysis of consensus sequence of the HTS reads. The HIVE-hexahedron workflow is more sensitive and accurate than just evaluating the consensus sequence and also more cost-effective than SGS.IMPORTANCE The highly recombinogenic nature of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to recombination and emergence of quasispecies. It is important to reliably identify subpopulations to understand the complexity of a viral population for drug resistance surveillance and vaccine development. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) provides improved resolution over Sanger sequencing for the analysis of heterogeneous viral subpopulations. However, current methods of analysis of HTS reads are unable to fully address accurate population reconstruction. Hence, there is a dire need for a more sensitive, accurate, user-friendly, and cost-effective method to analyze viral quasispecies. For this purpose, we have improved the HIVE-hexahedron algorithm that we previously developed with in silico short sequences to analyze raw HTS short reads. The significance of this study is that our standalone algorithm enables a streamlined analysis of quasispecies, subtype, and recombination patterns from long HIV-1 genome regions without the need of additional sequence analysis tools. Distinct viral populations and recombination patterns identified by HIVE-hexahedron are further validated by comparison with sequences obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS).


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Genome, Viral , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Cohort Studies , Computer Simulation , Genetic Variation , Genotype , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Phylogeny , Quasispecies/genetics
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(12): e1008165, 2019 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841553

ABSTRACT

Viral glycoproteins are a primary target for host antibody responses. However, glycans on viral glycoproteins can hinder antibody recognition since they are self glycans derived from the host biosynthesis pathway. During natural HIV-1 infection, neutralizing antibodies are made against glycans on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). However, such antibodies are rarely elicited with vaccination. Previously, the vaccine-induced, macaque antibody DH501 was isolated and shown to bind to high mannose glycans on HIV-1 Env. Understanding how DH501 underwent affinity maturation to recognize glycans could inform vaccine induction of HIV-1 glycan antibodies. Here, we show that DH501 Env glycan reactivity is mediated by both germline-encoded residues that contact glycans, and somatic mutations that increase antibody paratope flexibility. Only somatic mutations in the heavy chain were required for glycan reactivity. The paratope conformation was fragile as single mutations within the immunoglobulin fold or complementarity determining regions were sufficient for eliminating antibody function. Taken together, the initial germline VHDJH rearrangement generated contact residues capable of binding glycans, and somatic mutations were required to form a flexible paratope with a cavity conducive to HIV-1 envelope glycan binding. The requirement for the presence of most somatic mutations across the heavy chain variable region provides one explanation for the difficulty in inducing anti-Env glycan antibodies with HIV-1 Env vaccination.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Base Sequence , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Mutation
8.
J Infect ; 80(2): 210-218, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Viral fitness plays an important role in HIV-1 evolution, transmission and pathogenesis. However, how mutations accumulated during early infection affect viral fitness has not been well studied. METHODS: Paired infectious molecular clones (IMCs) for transmitted/founder (T/F) and 6-month (6-mo) viruses post infection were generated from 10 infected individuals to investigate the impact of accumulated mutations on viral fitness by comparing 6-mo viruses to their cognate T/F viruses. RESULTS: All ten 6-mo viruses were less fit than their cognate T/F viruses. Moreover, the fitness losses of the 6-mo viruses correlated with the decrease in viral loads from the peak of viremia. CONCLUSION: These results show that the mutations accumulated during half a year post infection collectively reduce viral fitness and thereby contribute to lowering viral loads.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Viral Load , Virus Replication
9.
Cell Rep ; 25(4): 893-908.e7, 2018 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355496

ABSTRACT

Densely arranged N-linked glycans shield the HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer from antibody recognition. Strain-specific breaches in this shield (glycan holes) can be targets of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies that lack breadth. To understand the interplay between glycan holes and neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infection, we developed a sequence- and structure-based approach to identify glycan holes for individual Env sequences that are shielded in most M-group viruses. Applying this approach to 12 longitudinally followed individuals, we found that transmitted viruses with more intact glycan shields correlated with development of greater neutralization breadth. Within 2 years, glycan acquisition filled most glycan holes present at transmission, indicating escape from hole-targeting neutralizing antibodies. Glycan hole filling generally preceded the time to first detectable breadth, although time intervals varied across hosts. Thus, completely glycan-shielded viruses were associated with accelerated neutralization breadth development, suggesting that Env immunogens with intact glycan shields may be preferred components of AIDS vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , HIV-1/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism , Computational Biology , Conserved Sequence , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Polysaccharides/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry
10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1928, 2018 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765018

ABSTRACT

Recombination in HIV-1 is well documented, but its importance in the low-diversity setting of within-host diversification is less understood. Here we develop a novel computational tool (RAPR (Recombination Analysis PRogram)) to enable a detailed view of in vivo viral recombination during early infection, and we apply it to near-full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from longitudinal samples. Recombinant genomes rapidly replace transmitted/founder (T/F) lineages, with a median half-time of 27 days, increasing the genetic complexity of the viral population. We identify recombination hot and cold spots that differ from those observed in inter-subtype recombinants. Furthermore, RAPR analysis of longitudinal samples from an individual with well-characterized neutralizing antibody responses shows that recombination helps carry forward resistance-conferring mutations in the diversifying quasispecies. These findings provide insight into molecular mechanisms by which viral recombination contributes to HIV-1 persistence and immunopathogenesis and have implications for studies of HIV transmission and evolution in vivo.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Genotype , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Phylogeny
11.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 33(11): 1107-1113, 2017 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797181

ABSTRACT

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected pregnant women receive antiretroviral therapy (Option B) and HIV-infected infants should initiate therapy with a protease inhibitor-based regimen; however, implementation of these guidelines has lagged in many resource-limited settings. Tanzania only recently implemented these guidelines with little country-specific data to inform whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was present among infected infants under the Option A guidelines. This study aimed to identify primary resistance mutations in HIV-infected infants and to identify risk of nevirapine (NVP) resistance based on maternal and infant NVP exposure. Infant dried blood spots (DBSs) were sent to the zonal reference laboratory at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Clinical Laboratory and underwent DNA polymerase chain reaction testing for HIV as standard of care. Using the clinical laboratory registry, HIV-positive DBS cards, stored at ambient temperature, were identified and sent for further viral load testing, nucleotide sequencing, and analysis. Clinical information was obtained from the PMTCT clinical sites and the National PMTCT registry for information regarding maternal and infant demographics and PMTCT treatment regimen. Results demonstrated that infants exposed to NVP were more likely to have high level resistance mutations (HLRMs) to NVP than those infants not exposed to NVP (p = .002). The most common HLRMs to NVP were K103 N, Y181C, and Y188 L. HIV subtype A was most common, followed by subtype C. Approximately one-third of HIV-infected infants had documented referral to HIV care. This study demonstrated the ongoing need to scale up and strengthen points along the PMTCT continuum and supported the recommendation for all HIV-infected infants to initiate a lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy regimen.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Nevirapine/pharmacology , Blood/virology , Female , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tanzania
12.
Cell Rep ; 18(9): 2175-2188, 2017 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249163

ABSTRACT

Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that target HIV-1 envelope (Env) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. A bnAb target is the Env third variable loop (V3)-glycan site. To determine whether immunization could induce antibodies to the V3-glycan bnAb binding site, we repetitively immunized macaques over a 4-year period with an Env expressing V3-high mannose glycans. Env immunizations elicited plasma antibodies that neutralized HIV-1 expressing only high-mannose glycans-a characteristic shared by early bnAb B cell lineage members. A rhesus recombinant monoclonal antibody from a vaccinated macaque bound to the V3-glycan site at the same amino acids as broadly neutralizing antibodies. A structure of the antibody bound to glycan revealed that the three variable heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions formed a cavity into which glycan could insert and neutralized multiple HIV-1 isolates with high-mannose glycans. Thus, HIV-1 Env vaccination induced mannose-dependent antibodies with characteristics of V3-glycan bnAb precursors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Mannose/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , Primates/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Macaca mulatta , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology
13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38130, 2016 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27909304

ABSTRACT

A severe bottleneck exists during HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, viral properties that determine HIV-1 transmissibility are not fully elucidated. We identified multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in six HIV-1-infected subjects by analyzing whole genome sequences. Comparison of biological phenotypes of different T/F viruses from the same individual allowed us to more precisely identify critical determinants for viral transmissibility since they were transmitted under similar conditions. All T/F viruses used coreceptor CCR5, while no T/F viruses used CXCR4 or GPR15. However, the efficiency for different T/F viruses from the same individual to use CCR5 was significantly variable, and the differences were even more significant for usage of coreceptors FPRL1, CCR3 and APJ. Resistance to IFN-α was also different between T/F viruses in 2 of 3 individuals. The relative fitness between T/F viruses from the same subject was highly variable (2-6%). Importantly, the levels of coreceptor usage efficiency, resistance to IFN-α and viral fitness were not associated with proportions of T/F viruses in each individual during acute infection. Our results show that the modest but significant differences in coreceptor usage efficiency, IFN-α sensitivity and viral fitness each alone may not play a critical role in HIV-1 transmission.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/physiology , Humans , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Male , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR5/physiology , Receptors, HIV/physiology , Viral Tropism/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 54(1): 220-2, 2016 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26560533

ABSTRACT

A multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay has been developed for the detection of HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance mutations (DRMs). We have optimized the MAS assay to determine subtype B DRMs in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from patients on antiretroviral therapy. The new assay accurately detected DRMs, including low-abundance mutations that were often missed by Sanger sequencing.


Subject(s)
Blood/virology , Desiccation , Drug Resistance, Viral , Genotyping Techniques/methods , HIV-1/drug effects , Mutation, Missense , Specimen Handling/methods , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
15.
J Clin Invest ; 125(7): 2702-6, 2015 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053661

ABSTRACT

Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1-transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score-matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3-specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT.


Subject(s)
HIV Antibodies/blood , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 69(4): 403-12, 2015 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25886933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The men having sex with men (MSM) population has become one of the major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in China. However, the epidemiological patterns, function of the env genes, and autologous and heterologous neutralization activity in the same MSM population have not been systematically characterized. METHODS: The env gene sequences were obtained by the single genome amplification. The time to the most recent common ancestor was estimated for each genotype using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Coreceptor usage was determined in NP-2 cells. Neutralization was analyzed using Env pseudoviruses in TZM-bl cells. RESULTS: We have obtained 547 full-length env gene sequences by single genome amplification from 30 acute/early HIV-1--infected individuals in the Beijing MSM cohort. Three genotypes (subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC) were identified and 20% of the individuals were infected with multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. The tight clusters of the MSM sequences regardless of geographic origins indicated nearly exclusive transmission within the MSM population and limited number of introductions. The time to the most recent common ancestor for each genotype was 10-15 years after each was first introduced in China. Disparate preferences for coreceptor usages among 3 genotypes might lead to the changes in percentage of different genotypes in the MSM population over time. The genotype-matched and genotype-mismatched neutralization activity varied among the 3 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of unique characteristics for transmission, coreceptor usage, neutralization profile, and epidemic patterns of HIV-1 is critical for the better understanding of transmission mechanisms, development of preventive strategies, and evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the MSM population in China.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/physiology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus , China/epidemiology , Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/transmission , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male
17.
Retrovirology ; 11: 69, 2014 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25212771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A major immune evasion mechanism of HIV-1 is the accumulation of non-synonymous mutations in and around T cell epitopes, resulting in loss of T cell recognition and virus escape. RESULTS: Here we analyze primary CD8+ T cell responses and virus escape in a HLA B*81 expressing subject who was infected with two T/F viruses from a single donor. In addition to classic escape through non-synonymous mutation/s, we also observed rapid selection of multiple recombinant viruses that conferred escape from T cells specific for two epitopes in Nef. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that recombination between multiple T/F viruses provide greater options for acute escape from CD8+ T cell responses than seen in cases of single T/F virus infection. This process may contribute to the rapid disease progression in patients infected by multiple T/F viruses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/genetics , Immune Evasion , Recombination, Genetic , Acute Disease , Adult , HIV-1/physiology , Humans , Male , Virus Replication
18.
Cell ; 158(3): 481-91, 2014 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25065977

ABSTRACT

Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here, we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated a virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization-traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive. Thus, in this individual, two B cell lineages cooperated to induce the development of bnAbs. Design of vaccine immunogens that simultaneously drive both helper and broadly neutralizing B cell lineages may be important for vaccine-induced recapitulation of events that transpire during the maturation of neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/chemistry , AIDS Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV-1/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immune Evasion , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Sequence Alignment , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 51(11): 3666-74, 2013 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23985909

ABSTRACT

High-throughput, sensitive, and cost-effective HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) detection assays are needed for large-scale monitoring of the emergence and transmission of HIVDR in resource-limited settings. Using suspension array technology, we have developed a multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay that can simultaneously detect major HIVDR mutations at 20 loci. Forty-five allele-specific primers tagged with unique 24-base oligonucleotides at the 5' end were designed to detect wild-type and mutant alleles at the 20 loci of HIV-1 subtype C. The MAS assay was first established and optimized with three plasmid templates (C-wt, C-mut1, and C-mut2) and then evaluated using 148 plasma specimens from HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals. All the wild-type and mutant alleles were unequivocally distinguished with plasmid templates, and the limits of detection were 1.56% for K219Q and K219E, 3.13% for L76V, 6.25% for K65R, K70R, L74V, L100I, K103N, K103R, Q151M, Y181C, and I47V, and 12.5% for M41L, K101P, K101E, V106A, V106M, Y115F, M184V, Y188L, G190A, V32I, I47A, I84V, and L90M. Analyses of 148 plasma specimens revealed that the MAS assay gave 100% concordance with conventional sequencing at eight loci and >95% (range, 95.21% to 99.32%) concordance at the remaining 12 loci. The differences observed were caused mainly by 24 additional low-abundance alleles detected by the MAS assay. Ultradeep sequencing analysis confirmed 15 of the 16 low-abundance alleles. This multiplex, sensitive, and straightforward result-reporting assay represents a new efficient genotyping tool for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Viral , HIV Protease/genetics , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation, Missense , Humans , Microarray Analysis/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Retrovirology ; 10: 88, 2013 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23941304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intrapartum administration of single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces perinatal HIV-1 transmission in resource-limiting settings by half. Yet this strategy has limited effect on subsequent breast milk transmission, making the case for new treatment approaches to extend maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis through the period of lactation. Maternal and transmitted infant HIV-1 variants frequently develop NVP resistance mutations following sdNVP, complicating subsequent treatment/prophylaxis regimens. However, it is not clear whether NVP-resistant viruses are transmitted via breastfeeding or arise de novo in the infant. FINDINGS: We performed a detailed HIV genetic analysis using single genome sequencing to identify the origin of drug-resistant variants in an sdNVP-treated postnatally-transmitting mother-infant pair. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences from the child revealed low-diversity variants indicating infection by a subtype C single transmitted/founder virus that shared full-length sequence identity with a clonally-amplified maternal breast milk virus variant harboring the K103N NVP resistance mutation. CONCLUSION: In this mother/child pair, clonal amplification of maternal NVP-resistant HIV variants present in systemic and mammary gland compartments following intrapartum sdNVP represents one source of transmitted NVP-resistant variants that is responsible for the acquisition of drug resistant virus by the breastfeeding infant. This finding emphasizes the need for combination antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Viral , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Milk, Human/virology , Nevirapine/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Chemoprevention/methods , Cluster Analysis , Female , Genotype , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Nevirapine/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology
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