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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329581

ABSTRACT

Emerging in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) eventually became a pandemic and has posed a tremendous threat to global public health. However, the origins of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, remain to be determined. It has reported that a certain number of the early case clusters had a contact history with Huanan Seafood Market. Therefore, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 within the market is of vital importance. Herein, we presented the SARS-CoV-2 detection results of 1380 samples collected from the environment and the animals within the market in early 2020. By SARS-CoV-2-specific RT-qPCR, 73 environmental samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and three live viruses were successfully isolated. The viruses from the market shared nucleotide identity of 99.980% to 99.993% with the human isolate HCoV/Wuhan/IVDC-HB-01. In contrast, no virus was detected in the animal swabs covering 18 species of animals in the market. The SARS-COV-2 nucleic acids in the positive environmental samples showed significant correlation of abundance of Homo sapiens with SARS-CoV-2. In summary, this study provided convincing evidence of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the Huanan Seafood Market during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 431: 128441, 2022 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670738

ABSTRACT

Face masks are effective response to address this havoc pandemic caused by respiratory infection virus, but they are lack of reusable, antibacterial, and antiviral abilities due to their simple filtration mechanism, bringing to a supply shortage and severe plastic pollution globally. Herein, we designed reusable, antiviral, and antibacterial masks (referred to as R2A masks) that transformed from commonly-used standard masks and household fabrics based on the polyphenol-based surface functionalization. R2A nanocoatings are mainly composed of supramolecular complexation of natural polyphenols and metal ions, possessing a high performance of antibacterial property and comprehensive recyclability. Interfacial interaction of R2A nanocoating can effectively capture the spreading of particulate matters and aerosols containing virus-mimic nanoparticles even after 10 recycles. Moreover, R2A masks exist antibacteria and antivirus for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Collectively, this simple functional enhancement of masks provides a sustainable and strategic preparation for combating the infectious respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , Filtration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 759587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662607

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has resulted in a global pandemic. Methodology: We used a two-step polymerase chain reaction to detect the ACE genotype and ELISA kits to detect the cytokine factor. We also used proteomics to identify the immune pathway related to the ACE protein expression. Result: In this study, we found that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) deletion polymorphism was associated with the susceptibility to COVID-19 in a risk-dependent manner among the Chinese population. D/D genotype distributions were higher in the COVID-19 disease group than in the control group (D/D odds ratio is 3.87 for mild (p value < 0.0001), 2.59 for moderate (p value = 0.0002), and 4.05 for severe symptoms (p value < 0.0001), logic regression analysis. Moreover, genotype-specific cytokine storms and immune responses were found enriched in patients with the ACE deletion polymorphism, suggesting the contribution to the susceptibility to COVID-19. Finally, we identified the immune pathway such as the complement system related to the ACE protein expression of patients by lung and plasma proteomics. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that it is very important to consider gene polymorphisms in the population to discover a host-based COVID-19 vaccine and drug design for preventive and precision medicine.

4.
mBio ; : e0316821, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662303

ABSTRACT

As an enveloped virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains a membrane protein (M) that mediates viral release from cellular membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 virion release remain poorly understood. In the present study, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified the E3 ligase RNF5, which mediates the ubiquitination of SARS-CoV-2 M at residue K15 to enhance the interaction of the viral envelope protein (E) with M, whereas the deubiquitinating enzyme POH1 negatively regulates this process. The M-E complex ensures the uniform size of viral particles for viral maturation and mediates virion release. Moreover, M traffics from the Golgi apparatus to autophagosomes and uses autophagosomes for virion release, and this process is dependent on RNF5-mediated ubiquitin modification and M-E interaction. These results demonstrate that ubiquitin modification of SARS-CoV-2 M stabilizes the M-E complex and uses autophagosomes for virion release. IMPORTANCE Enveloped virus particles are released from the membranes of host cells, and viral membrane proteins (M) are critical for this process. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 assembly and budding is critical for the development of antiviral therapies. Envelope protein (E) and M of SARS-CoV-2 form complexes to mediate viral assembly and budding. RNF5 was identified to play a role as the E3 ligase, and POH1 was demonstrated to function as the deubiquitinating enzyme of SARS-CoV-2 M. The two components collectively regulate the interaction of M with E to promote viral assembly and budding. Ubiquitinated M uses autophagosomes for viral release. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 assembly and budding, demonstrating the importance of ubiquitination modification and autophagy in viral replication.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 567-572, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642256

ABSTRACT

Global concern has been raised by the emergence and rapid transmission of the heavily mutated SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529). So far, the infection features and immune escape ability of the Omicron variant have not been extensively studied. Here, we produced the Omicron pseudovirus and compared its entry, membrane fusion, and immune escape efficiency with the original strain and the dominating Delta variant. We found the Omicron variant showed slightly higher infectivity than the Delta variant and a similar ability to compete with the Delta variant in using Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in a BHK21-ACE2 cell line. However, the Omicron showed a significantly reduced fusogenicity than the original strain and the Delta variant in both BHK21-ACE2 and Vero-E6 cells. The neutralization assay testing the Wuhan convalescents' sera one-year post-infection showed a more dramatic reduction (10.15 fold) of neutralization against the Omicron variant than the Delta variant (1.79 fold) compared with the original strain with D614G. Notably, immune-boosting through three vaccine shots significantly improved the convalescents' immunity against the Omicron variants. Our results reveal a reduced fusogenicity and a striking immune escape ability of the Omicron variant, highlighting the importance of booster shots against the challenge of the SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Secondary , Vero Cells
6.
Innovation (N Y) ; 3(1): 100181, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595417

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19 convalescents can build effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity, but it remains unclear how long it can maintain and how efficiently it can prevent the reinfection of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we tested the sera from 248 COVID-19 convalescents around 1 year post-infection in Wuhan, the earliest known epicenter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) was well maintained in most patients and potently neutralizes the infection of the original strain and the B.1.1.7 variant. However, varying degrees of immune escape was observed on the other tested variants in a patient-specific manner, with individuals showing remarkably broad neutralization potency. The immune escape can be largely attributed to several critical spike mutations. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can elicit long-lasting immunity but this is escaped by the emerging variants.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296808

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is the result of comprehensive evolution of a dynamic and complex system composed of emission sources, topography, meteorology and other environmental factors. The establishment of spatiotemporal evolution model is of great significance for the study of air pollution mechanism, trend prediction, identification of pollution sources and pollution control. In this paper, the air pollution system is described based on cellular automata and restricted agents, and a Swarm Intelligence based Air Pollution SpatioTemporal Evolution (SI-APSTE) model is constructed. Then the spatiotemporal evolution analysis method of air pollution is studied. Taking Henan Province before and after COVID-19 pandemic as an example, the NO 2 products of TROPOMI and OMI were analysed based on SI-APSTE model. The tropospheric NO 2 Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) distribution characteristics of spatiotemporal variation of Henan province before COVID-19 pandemic were studied. Then the tropospheric NO 2 VCDs of TROPOMI was used to study the pandemic period, month-on-month and year-on-year in 18 urban areas of Henan Province. The results show that SI-APSTE model can effectively analyse the spatiotemporal evolution of air pollution by using environmental big data and swarm intelligence, and also can establish a theoretical basis for pollution source identification and trend prediction.

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295296

ABSTRACT

Background More than ten novel COVID-19 vaccines have been approved with protections against SARS-CoV-2 infections ranges between 52-95%. It is of great interest to the vaccinees who have received the COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine developers and authorities to identify the non-responders in a timely manner so intervention can take place by either giving additional boosts of the same vaccine or switching to a different vaccine to improve the protection against the SARS-CoV-2 infections. A robust correlation was seen between binding antibody titer and efficacy (p=0.93) in the clinic studies of 7 COVID-19 vaccines, so it is of urgency to develop a simple POCT for vaccinees to self-assess their immune response at home. Methods Using CHO cell-expressed full length SARS-CoV2 S1 protein as coating antigen on colloidal gold particles, a SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG-IgM antibody lateral flow test kit (POCT) was developed. The test was validated with negative human sera collected prior to the COVID-19 outbreaks, and blood samples from human subjects prior, during, and post-immunization of COVID-19 vaccines. Results The specificity of the POCT was 99.0%, as examined against 947 normal human sera and 20 whole blood samples collected pre-immunization. The limit of detection was 50 IU/mL of pseudovirus neutralizing titer (PVNT) using human anti-SARS-2 neutralizing standards from convalescent sera. The sensitivity of POCT for SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein antibody IgG-IgM was compared with SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody ELISA and determined to be 100% using 23 blood samples from vaccinated human subjects and 10 samples from non-vaccinated ones. Whole blood samples were collected from 119 human subjects (ages between 22-61 years) prior to, during, and post-vaccination of five different COVID-19 vaccines. Among them, 115 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies (showing positive at least once) and 4 people tested negative (tested negative at least twice on different days), demonstrating 96.64% of seroconversion after full-vaccination. 92.3% (36/39) of the human subjects who were younger than 45 achieved seroconversion within 2 weeks while only 57.1% (4/7) of subjects older than 45 tested positive for S1 antibodies, suggesting that younger people develop protection much faster than older ones. Even though the S1 antibody level in 88% of human subjects vaccinated with inactivated virus dropped below 50 IU/mL two months later, one boost could quickly raise the S1 antibody titer above 50 IU/mL of PVNT, indicates that the initial vaccination was successful and immunization memory was developed. Conclusion Using the lateral flow tests of SARS-CoV2 S1 IgG+IgM, vaccinated human subjects can easily self-assess the efficacy of their vaccination at home. The vaccine developer could quickly identify those non-responders and give them an additional boost to improve the efficacy of their vaccines. Vaccinees who failed in response could switch to different types of COVID-19 vaccines since there are more than 10 COVID-19 vaccines approved using three different platform technologies. Highlights More than ten novel COVID-19 vaccines have been approved with protections against SARS-CoV-2 infections ranges between 52-95%. It is of great interest to the vaccinees who have received the COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine developers and authorities to identify the non-responders in a timely manner. A highly specific and very simple lateral flow test kit for measurement of SARS-CoV-2 S1IgG+IgM antibodies post-immunization of COVID-19 vaccine using peripheral blood was developed as a home-test assay with a limit of detection (LOD) at 50 IU/mL of pseudovirus neutralizing titer (PVNT). After full vaccinations with COVID-19 vaccines, 96.6% of the volunteers successfully achieved the seroconversion of SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG+IgM antibody. 92.3% (36/39) of the human subjects who were younger than 45 achieved seroconversion within 2 weeks while only 57.1% (4/7) of subjects older than 45 tested positive for S1 antibodies, suggesting that younger peopl develop protection much faster than older ones. Even though the S1 antibody level in 88% of human subjects vaccinated with inactivated virus dropped below the detection 2-6 months later, one boost could quickly raise the S1 antibody titer above 50 IU/mL of PVNT, indicating that the initial vaccination was successful and immunization memory was developed.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18614, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428902

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is the result of comprehensive evolution of a dynamic and complex system composed of emission sources, topography, meteorology and other environmental factors. The establishment of spatiotemporal evolution model is of great significance for the study of air pollution mechanism, trend prediction, identification of pollution sources and pollution control. In this paper, the air pollution system is described based on cellular automata and restricted agents, and a Swarm Intelligence based Air Pollution SpatioTemporal Evolution (SI-APSTE) model is constructed. Then the spatiotemporal evolution analysis method of air pollution is studied. Taking Henan Province before and after COVID-19 pandemic as an example, the NO2 products of TROPOMI and OMI were analysed based on SI-APSTE model. The tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) distribution characteristics of spatiotemporal variation of Henan province before COVID-19 pandemic were studied. Then the tropospheric NO2 VCDs of TROPOMI was used to study the pandemic period, month-on-month and year-on-year in 18 urban areas of Henan Province. The results show that SI-APSTE model can effectively analyse the spatiotemporal evolution of air pollution by using environmental big data and swarm intelligence, and also can establish a theoretical basis for pollution source identification and trend prediction.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Air Pollutants/analysis , China/epidemiology , Diffusion , Environmental Monitoring , Geography , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Seasons , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 175: 216-225, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377715

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Quantification of blood nitrite and nitrate, two relatively stable metabolites of NO (generally as NOx), has been acknowledged, in part, representing NO bioactivity. Dysregulation of NOx had been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected populations, but whether patients recovered from COVID-19 disease present with restored NOx is unknown. In this study, serum NO2- and NO3- were quantified and analyzed among 109 recovered adults in comparison to a control group of 166 uninfected adults. Nitrite or nitrate levels were not significantly different among mild-, common-, severe- and critical-type patients. However, these recovered patients had dramatically lower NO2- and NO2-/NO3- than the uninfected group (p < 0.0001), with significantly higher NO3- levels (p = 0.0023) than the uninfected group. Nitrate and nitrite/nitrate were positively and negatively correlated with patient age, respectively, with age 65 being a turning point among recovered patients. These results indicate that low NO2-, low NO2-/NO3- and high NO3- may be potential biomarkers of long-term poor or irreversible outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection. It suggests that NO metabolites might serve as a predictor to track the health status of recovered COVID-19 patients, highlighting the need to elucidate the role of NO after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nitrites , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Humans , Nitrates , Nitric Oxide , SARS-CoV-2
12.
CRISPR J ; 4(3): 392-399, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276110

ABSTRACT

Rapid and clinically sensitive detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) play an important role in the contact tracing and containment of the COVID-19 pandemic. A recently developed field-deployable clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) detection assay with lateral flow strips shows promise for point-of-care detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, the limit of detection of paper strip-based assays (10-100 copies/µL) is much lower than that of fluorescence-based detection methods. In this study, we developed an easy-readout and sensitive enhanced (ERASE) strip to visualize the results of CRISPR detection and improve the sensitivity to 1 copy/µL with an unambiguous easy-read result. Using 649 clinical samples from blind specimens collected from patients in China, we validated our ERASE assay for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection with 90.67% positive predictive agreement and 99.21% negative predictive agreement. In conclusion, our study provided a customized CRISPR strip for use in a simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, and highly specific assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection. (Clinical Trial Registration number: 2020-008-01; [2020]IEC(ZD01); PJ-NBEY-2020-009-01; 2020#34).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Anal Chem ; 92(13): 9399-9404, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342738

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency. The reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) test is currently considered as the gold standard in the laboratory for the etiological detection of COVID-19. However, qRT-PCR results could be false-negative due to the inadequate sensitivity of qRT-PCR. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a novel one-step single-tube nested quantitative real-time PCR (OSN-qRT-PCR) assay for the highly sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 targeting the ORF1ab and N genes. The sensitivity of the OSN-qRT-PCR assay was 1 copy/reaction and 10-fold higher than that of the commercial qRT-PCR kit (10 copies/reaction). The clinical performance of the OSN-qRT-PCR assay was evaluated using 181 clinical samples. Among them, 14 qRT-PCR-negative samples (7 had no repetitive results and 7 had no cycle threshold (CT) values) were detected by OSN-qRT-PCR. Moreover, the 7 qRT-PCR-positives in the qRT-PCR gray zone (CT values of ORF1ab ranged from 37.48 to 39.07, and CT values of N ranged from 37.34 to 38.75) were out of the gray zone and thus were deemed to be positive by OSN-qRT-PCR, indicating that the positivity of these samples is confirmative. Compared to the qRT-PCR kit, the OSN-qRT-PCR assay revealed higher sensitivity and specificity, showing better suitability to clinical applications for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with low viral load.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polyproteins , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
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