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1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784844

ABSTRACT

Simulation-based learning (SBL) is well-established in medical education and has gained popularity, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic when in-person teaching is infeasible. SBL replicates real-life scenarios and provides a fully immersive yet safe learning environment to develop clinical competency. Simulation via Instant Messaging - Birmingham Advance (SIMBA) is an exemplar of SBL, which we previously showed to be effective in endocrinology and diabetes. Previous studies reported the efficacy of SBL in acute medicine. We studied SIMBA as a learning intervention for healthcare professionals interested in acute medicine and defined our aims using the Kirkpatrick model: (i) develop an SBL tool to improve case management; (ii) evaluate experiences and confidence before and after; and (iii) compare efficacy across training levels.Three sessions were conducted, each representing a PDSA cycle (Plan-Do-Study-Act), consisting of four cases and advertised to healthcare professionals at our hospital and social media. Moderators facilitated progression through 25 min simulations and adopted patient and clinical roles as appropriate. Consultants chaired discussion sessions using relevant guidelines. Presimulation and postsimulation questionnaires evaluated self-reported confidence, feedback and intended changes to clinical practice.Improvements were observed in self-reported confidence managing simulated cases across all sessions. Of participants, 93.3% found SIMBA applicable to clinical practice, while 89.3% and 88.0% felt SIMBA aided personal and professional development, respectively. Interestingly, 68.0% preferred SIMBA to traditional teaching methods. Following participant feedback, more challenging cases were included, and we extended the time for simulation and discussion. The transcripts were amended to facilitate more participant-moderator interaction representing clinical practice. In addition, we refined participant recruitment over the three sessions. In cycle 1, we advertised incentives: participation counted towards teaching requirements, certificates and feedback. To rectify the reduction in participants in cycle 2, we implemented new advertisement methods in cycle 3, including on-site posters, reminder emails and recruitment of the defence deanery cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Clinical Competence , Humans , Learning , Pandemics
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307613

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently spread worldwide partly through environmental and airborne contamination. The number of patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU)-based healthcare services exceeds the available negative-pressure isolation ICU room capacity. Some general wards of Wuhan hospitals have been temporarily converted into COVID-19 ICU wards and pose safety concerns. We explored the safety of these temporary COVID-19 ICU wards. Methods: : Fifteen air samples and 128 environmental surface swabs were collected from 14 patients in 4 departments with temporary COVID-19 ICU wards. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods confirmed the existence of COVID-19 pathogens. Results: : Four of the 15 air samples were obtained during aerosol-generating medical procedures (1 tracheostomy, 1 high-flow nasal cannula [HFNC], 1 HFNC+nebulization, 1 non-invasive positive pressure ventilation). Five patients were administered invasive positive pressure ventilation through tracheostomy. All air samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Viruses were detected on the surface of a patient’s gastric tube, and an anal tube swab tested positive. Five days later, the anal swab of the patient remained positive, although viral RNA of the nasopharyngeal swap turned negative. Conclusions: : Establishing temporary isolation COVID-19 ICU wards is a safe and effective method to increase surge capacity in a hospital. SARS-CoV-2 sheds from the enteric canal after viral clearance in the respiratory tract. Reinforcing disinfection of tubes and circuits given to the patients is essential in COVID-19 isolation wards to decrease nosocomial transmission.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312714

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has now spread worldwide. This study aimed to provide a reference for comprehensive treatment, personal protection, and team management of patients with critical COVID-19. Methods: The study included critical COVID-19 cases at a single centre in Wuhan, China. We retrospectively analysed data on symptoms, laboratory tests, radiology findings, treatment, and outcomes. Air samples and environmental surface swabs in the isolation ward were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Results: Fourteen critically ill patients (mean age 62.1 years) were treated between February 4, 2020 and April 6, 2020. Less than half had underlying diseases, including hypertension (n=6, 42.9%) and diabetes (n=4, 28.6%). Laboratory tests showed decreased lymphocyte levels and increased serum ferritin and inflammatory cytokine levels. More than half of the patients received antiviral drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir (n=10;71.4%) and arbidol (n=6, 42.9%). Eight patients (57.1%) received convalescent plasma, and 12 (85.7%) received systemic glucocorticoids. Eleven (78.6%) received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, five (35.7%) received non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, seven (50.0%) received invasive positive pressure ventilation, and three (21.4%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. By April 6, 2020, nine (64.3%) patients were discharged, four remained in hospital, and one had died. All air samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Of 128 environmental surface swabs, one gastric tube swab and one anal tube swab were positive for SARS-CoV-2. All oropharyngeal swabs taken from medical staff tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: Individualised comprehensive treatment, appropriate personal protection, and teamwork may improve the prognosis in patients with COVID-19 who are critically ill.

4.
Clinical Medicine ; 21:S34-S35, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1380288

ABSTRACT

Simulation-based learning is a useful teaching modality to develop clinicians' knowledge and skills, while protecting patients from harm.1 While simulation has traditionally occurred via face-to-face role play, many of its principles can be adapted for remote learning. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Simulation via Instant Messaging - Birmingham Advance (SIMBA) as a model of virtual simulation-based medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant improvement in selfreported confidence in participants' approach to the simulated cases (overall (204;p<0.001);adrenal (33;p<0.001);thyroid (37;p<0.001);pituitary (79;p<0.001);inflammatory bowel disease (17;p<0.001);acute medicine (38;p<0.001)).

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166260, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced inflammatory responses are largely responsible for the death of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers inflammatory responses remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the regulatory role of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in infected cells and attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirions (SCV-2-S) were generated using the spike-expressing virus packaging system. Western blot, mCherry-GFP-LC3 labeling, immunofluorescence, and RNA-seq were performed to examine the regulatory mechanism of SCV-2-S in autophagic response. The effects of SCV-2-S on apoptosis were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), Western blot, and flow cytometry analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to examine the mechanism of SCV-2-S in inflammatory responses. RESULTS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-mediated SCV-2-S infection induced autophagy and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells. Mechanistically, SCV-2-S inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by upregulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thus promoting the autophagic response. Ultimately, SCV-2-S-induced autophagy triggered inflammatory responses and apoptosis in infected cells. These findings not only improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced pathogenic inflammation but also have important implications for developing anti-inflammatory therapies, such as ROS and autophagy inhibitors, for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis/immunology , Autophagy/physiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Vero Cells
6.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 51(2): 168-172, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Simulation via Instant Messaging - Birmingham Advance (SIMBA) aimed to improve clinicians' confidence in managing various clinical scenarios during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Five SIMBA sessions were conducted between May and August 2020. Each session included simulation of scenarios and interactive discussion. Participants' self-reported confidence, acceptance, and relevance of the simulated cases were measured. RESULTS: Significant improvement was observed in participants' self-reported confidence (overall n = 204, p<0.001; adrenal n = 33, p<0.001; thyroid n = 37, p<0.001; pituitary n = 79, p<0.001; inflammatory bowel disease n = 17, p<0.001; acute medicine n = 38, p<0.001). Participants reported improvements in clinical competencies: patient care 52.0% (n = 106/204), professionalism 30.9% (n = 63/204), knowledge on patient management 84.8% (n = 173/204), systems-based practice 48.0% (n = 98/204), practice-based learning 69.6% (n = 142/204) and communication skills 25.5% (n = 52/204). CONCLUSION: SIMBA is a novel pedagogical virtual simulation-based learning model that improves clinicians' confidence in managing conditions across various specialties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Simulation Training/methods , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(4): 612-622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680430

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequency accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread worldwide. While diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure are the main features of COVID-19, other organs may be involved, and the incidence of AKI is not well described. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of AKI in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and its effects on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to two general hospitals in Wuhan from 5 January 2020 to 21 March 2020. Demographic data and information on organ dysfunction were collected daily. AKI was defined according to the KDIGO clinical practice guidelines. Early and late AKI were defined as AKI occurring within 72 h after admission or after 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 116 patients, AKI developed in 21 (18.1%) patients. Among them, early and late AKI were found in 13 (11.2%) and 8 (6.9%) patients, respectively. Compared with patients without AKI, patients with AKI had more severe organ dysfunction, as indicated by a higher level of disease severity status, higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on admission, an increased prevalence of shock, and a higher level of respiratory support. Patients with AKI had a higher SOFA score on admission (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4, OR 1.498, 95% CI 1.047-2.143 ) and greater hospital mortality (57.1% vs. 12.6%, OR 3.998, 95% CI 1.088-14.613) than patients without AKI in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with late AKI, but not those with early AKI, had a significantly prolonged length of stay (19.6 vs. 9.6 days, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that admission SOFA score was an independent risk factor for AKI in COVID-19 patients, and patients with AKI had higher in-hospital mortality. Moreover, AKI development after 72 h of admission was related to prolonged hospitalization time.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Function Tests , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Water-Electrolyte Balance
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(6): 1324-1326, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6800

ABSTRACT

We report co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus in a patient with pneumonia in China. The case highlights possible co-detection of known respiratory viruses. We noted low sensitivity of upper respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2, which could further complicate recognition of the full extent of disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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