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1.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk from Covid-19, though vaccination has significant efficacy in preventing and reducing the severity of infection. Little information is available on disease severity and vaccine efficacy since dissemination of the Omicron variant. METHODS: In a multi-center study, during a period of the epidemic driven by the Omicron variant, all hemodialysis patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Outcomes were analysed according to predictor variables including vaccination status. Risk of infection was analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 1126 patients including 200 (18%) unvaccinated, 56 (5%) post first dose, 433 (38%) post second dose, and 437 (39%) at least 7 days beyond their third dose. The majority of patients had a mild course but 160 (14%) were hospitalised and 28 (2%) died. In regression models adjusted for age and comorbidity, two-dose vaccination was associated with a 39% (95%CI: 2-62%) reduction in admissions, but third doses provided additional protection, with a 51% (95%CI: 25-69%) further reduction in admissions. Amongst 1265 patients at risk at the start of the observation period, SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 211 (17%). Two-dose vaccination was associated with a 41% (95%CI: 3-64%) reduction in the incidence of infection, with no clear additional effect provided by third doses. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate lower incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in dialysis patients during an Omicron dominant period of the epidemic. Amongst those developing infection, severe illness was less common with prior vaccination, particularly after third vaccine doses.

2.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(6): 843-850, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving hemodialysis are at high risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and demonstrate impaired immune responses to vaccines. There have been several descriptions of their immunologic responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but few studies have described the clinical efficacy of vaccination in patients on hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a multicenter observational study of the London hemodialysis population undergoing surveillance PCR testing during the period of vaccine rollout with BNT162b2 and AZD1222, all of those positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to predictor variables, including vaccination status, using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Risk of infection was analyzed in a subgroup of the base population using a Cox proportional hazards model with vaccination status as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 1323 patients of different ethnicities (Asian/other, 30%; Black, 38%; and White, 32%), including 1047 (79%) unvaccinated, 86 (7%) after first-dose vaccination, and 190 (14%) after second-dose vaccination. The majority of patients had a mild course; however, 515 (39%) were hospitalized, and 172 (13%) died. Older age, diabetes, and immune suppression were associated with greater illness severity. In regression models adjusted for age, comorbidity, and time period, prior two-dose vaccination was associated with a 75% (95% confidence interval, 56 to 86) lower risk of admission and 88% (95% confidence interval, 70 to 95) fewer deaths compared with unvaccinated patients. No loss of protection was seen in patients over 65 years or with increasing time since vaccination, and no difference was seen between vaccine types. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a substantially lower risk of severe COVID-19 after vaccination in patients on dialysis who become infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Renal Dialysis , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , Humans , London , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination
3.
Kidney360 ; 1(11): 1226-1243, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776863

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients on dialysis with frequent comorbidities, advanced age, and frailty, who visit treatment facilities frequently, are perhaps more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection and related death-the risk factors and dynamics of which are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hospital outcomes in patients on dialysis infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Data on 224 patients on hemodialysis between February 29, 2020 and May 15, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed for outcomes and potential risk factors for death, using a competing risk-regression model assessed by subdistribution hazards ratio (SHR). Results: Crude data analyses suggest an overall case-fatality ratio of 23% (95% CI, 17% to 28%) overall, but that varies across age groups from 11% (95% CI, 0.9% to 9.2%) in patients ≤50 years old and 32% (95% CI, 17% to 48%) in patients >80 years; with 60% of deaths occurring in the first 15 days and 80% within 21 days, indicating a rapid deterioration toward death after admission. Almost 90% of surviving patients were discharged within 28 days. Death was more likely than hospital discharge in patients who were more frail (WHO performance status, 3-4; SHR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.25 to 3.74]; P=0.006), had ischemic heart disease (SHR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.32 to 3.94]; P=0.003), cerebrovascular disease (SHR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.20 to 3.72]; P=0.01), smoking history (SHR, 2.69 [95% CI, 1.33 to 5.45]; P=0.006), patients who were hospitalized (SHR, 10.26 [95% CI, 3.10 to 33.94]; P<0.001), and patients with high CRP (SHR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.67]) and a high neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (SHR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04], P<0.001). Our data did not support differences in the risk of death associated with sex, ethnicity, dialysis vintage, or other comorbidities. However, comparison with the entire dialysis population attending these hospitals, in which 13% were affected, revealed that patients who were non-White (62% versus 52% in all patients, P=0.001) and those with diabetes (54% versus 22%, P<0.001) were disproportionately affected. Conclusions: This report discusses the outcomes of a large cohort of patients on dialysis. We found SARS-CoV-2 infection affected more patients with diabetes and those who were non-White, with a high case-fatality ratio, which increased significantly with age, frailty, smoking, increasing CRP, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio at presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , London/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(2): 265-271, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056576

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, high rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically unwell patients are being reported, leading to an increased demand for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Providing RRT for this large number of patients is proving challenging, and so alternatives to continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are needed. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be initiated immediately after percutaneous insertion of the catheter, but there are concerns about impact on ventilation and RRT efficacy. We sought to describe our recent experience with percutaneous catheter insertion and peritoneal dialysis in patients in the ICU with COVID-19 infection. METHOD: Patients were selected according to local protocol, and catheters were inserted percutaneously by experienced operators using a Seldinger technique. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and ventilation requirements were recorded at the time of insertion and 24 hours later. Procedural complications, proportion of RRT provided by PD, renal recovery, and RRT parameters (serum potassium and maximum base excess) during PD were assessed. RESULTS: Percutaneous PD catheters were successfully inserted in 37 of 44 patients (84.1%) after a median of 13.5 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 10.0, 20.3 days) in the ICU. No adverse events were reported; SOFA scores and ventilation requirements were comparable before and after insertion; and adequate RRT parameters were achieved. The median proportion of RRT provided by PD following catheter insertion was 94.6% (IQR = 75.0, 100%). CONCLUSION: Peritoneal dialysis provides a safe and effective alternative to CRRT in selected patients with AKI and COVID-19 infection requiring ventilation on intensive care.

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