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1.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While previous studies have identified a range of factors associated with mask wearing in the US, little is known about drivers of mask-wearing among racial and ethnic minority groups. This analysis assessed whether factors positively associated with wearing a mask early in the pandemic differed between participants grouped by race/ethnicity (Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, and non-Hispanic White). METHOD: Data were obtained from a US internet panel survey of 3217 respondents during May-November 2020 (weighted by race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education to the US national population). Within each of the four available racial/ethnic groups, crude and adjusted odds ratios (COR and AOR) were calculated using logistic regression to assess factors positively associated with wearing a mask. Adjusted models were controlled for age, gender, education, county COVID-19 case count, presence of a state-issued mask mandate, and interview month. RESULTS: The following variables were most strongly positively associated with mask wearing (p<0.05) in each racial/ethnic group: Hispanic-seeing others wearing masks (AOR: 6.7), importance of wearing a mask combined with social distancing (AOR: 3.0); non-Hispanic Black-belief that wearing a mask would protect others from coronavirus (AOR: 5.1), reporting hearing that one should wear a mask (AOR: 3.6); non-Hispanic Asian-belief that people important to them believe they should wear a mask (COR: 5.1, not statistically significant); and non-Hispanic White-seeing others wearing masks (AOR: 3.1), importance of wearing a mask (AOR: 2.3). CONCLUSION: Public health efforts to encourage mask wearing should consider the diversity of behavioral influences within different population groups.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1267-1273, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456567

ABSTRACT

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (1-3). Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations vary in language; cultural practices; and social, economic, and environmental experiences,† which can affect health outcomes (4).§ However, data from these populations are often aggregated in analyses. Although data aggregation is often used as an approach to increase sample size and statistical power when analyzing data from smaller population groups, it can limit the understanding of disparities among diverse Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian subpopulations¶ (4-7). To assess disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations, a disaggregated, descriptive analysis, informed by recommendations from these communities,** was performed using race data from 21,005 COVID-19 cases and 449 COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health (HDOH) during March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021.†† In Hawaii, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 population were 1,477 and 32, respectively during this period. In analyses with race categories that were not mutually exclusive, including persons of one race alone or in combination with one or more races, Pacific Islander persons, who account for 5% of Hawaii's population, represented 22% of COVID-19 cases and deaths (COVID-19 incidence of 7,070 and mortality rate of 150). Native Hawaiian persons experienced an incidence of 1,181 and a mortality rate of 15. Among subcategories of Asian populations, the highest incidences were experienced by Filipino persons (1,247) and Vietnamese persons (1,200). Disaggregating Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian race data can aid in identifying racial disparities among specific subpopulations and highlights the importance of partnering with communities to develop culturally responsive outreach teams§§ and tailored public health interventions and vaccination campaigns to more effectively address health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 566-569, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187182

ABSTRACT

Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have experienced disproportionately higher rates of hospitalization and death attributable to COVID-19 than have non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1-4). Emergency care data offer insight into COVID-19 incidence; however, differences in use of emergency department (ED) services for COVID-19 by racial and ethnic groups are not well understood. These data, most of which are recorded within 24 hours of the visit, might be an early indicator of changing patterns in disparities. Using ED visit data from 13 states obtained from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP), CDC assessed the number of ED visits with a COVID-19 discharge diagnosis code per 100,000 population during October-December 2020 by age and race/ethnicity. Among 5,794,050 total ED visits during this period, 282,220 (4.9%) were for COVID-19. Racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 ED visit rates were observed across age groups. Compared with White persons, Hispanic, AI/AN, and Black persons had significantly more COVID-19-related ED visits overall (rate ratio [RR] range = 1.39-1.77) and in all age groups through age 74 years; compared with White persons aged ≥75 years, Hispanic and AI/AN persons also had more COVID-19-related ED visits (RR = 1.91 and 1.22, respectively). These differences in ED visit rates suggest ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence and can be used to prioritize prevention resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to reach disproportionately affected communities and reduce the need for emergency care for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 483-489, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168278

ABSTRACT

Long-standing systemic social, economic, and environmental inequities in the United States have put many communities of color (racial and ethnic minority groups) at increased risk for exposure to and infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as more severe COVID-19-related outcomes (1-3). Because race and ethnicity are missing for a proportion of reported COVID-19 cases, counties with substantial missing information often are excluded from analyses of disparities (4). Thus, as a complement to these case-based analyses, population-based studies can help direct public health interventions. Using data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC identified counties where five racial and ethnic minority groups (Hispanic or Latino [Hispanic], non-Hispanic Black or African American [Black], non-Hispanic Asian [Asian], non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native [AI/AN], and non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NH/PI]) might have experienced high COVID-19 impact during April 1-December 22, 2020. These counties had high 2-week COVID-19 incidences (>100 new cases per 100,000 persons in the total population) and percentages of persons in five racial and ethnic groups that were larger than the national percentages (denoted as "large"). During April 1-14, a total of 359 (11.4%) of 3,142 U.S. counties reported high COVID-19 incidence, including 28.7% of counties with large percentages of Asian persons and 27.9% of counties with large percentages of Black persons. During August 5-18, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 2,034 (64.7%) counties, including 92.4% of counties with large percentages of Black persons and 74.5% of counties with large percentages of Hispanic persons. During December 9-22, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 3,114 (99.1%) counties, including >95% of those with large percentages of persons in each of the five racial and ethnic minority groups. The findings of this population-based analysis complement those of case-based analyses. In jurisdictions with substantial missing race and ethnicity information, this method could be applied to smaller geographic areas, to identify communities of color that might be experiencing high potential COVID-19 impact. As areas with high rates of new infection change over time, public health efforts can be tailored to the needs of communities of color as the pandemic evolves and integrated with longer-term plans to improve health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology
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