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EBioMedicine ; 89: 104471, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244267


BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that eliciting SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM after vaccination is associated with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing IgG. This study aims to assess whether IgM development is also associated with longer-lasting immunity. METHODS: We analysed anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG and IgM (IgG-S, IgM-S), and anti-nucleocapsid IgG (IgG-N) in 1872 vaccinees at different time points: before the first dose (D1; w0), before the second dose (D2; w3) at three (w6) and 23 weeks (w29) after D2; moreover, 109 subjects were further tested at the booster dose (D3, w44), at 3 weeks (w47) and 6 months (w70) after D3. Two-level linear regression models were used to evaluate the differences in IgG-S levels. FINDINGS: In subjects who had no evidence of a previous infection at D1 (non-infected, NI), IgM-S development after D1 and D2 was associated with higher IgG-S levels at short (w6, p < 0.0001) and long (w29, p < 0.001) follow-up. Similar IgG-S levels were observed after D3. The majority (28/33, 85%) of the NI subjects who had developed IgM-S in response to vaccination did not experience infection. INTERPRETATION: The development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM-S following D1 and D2 is associated with higher IgG-S levels. Most individuals who developed IgM-S never became infected, suggesting that IgM elicitation may be associated with a lower risk of infection. FUNDING: "Fondi Ricerca Corrente" and "Progetto Ricerca Finalizzata" COVID-2020 (Italian Ministry of Health); FUR 2020 Department of Excellence 2018-2022 (MIUR, Italy); the Brain Research Foundation Verona.

COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin M , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G