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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5736, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778634

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including < 80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 (20B) most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 (20D) developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, within the limitations of phylogeographical reconstruction, the estimated ancestral scenario suggests an important role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314810

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was the reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary dynamics in time and space in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed that pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 entered Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314809

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including <80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314808

ABSTRACT

A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.

5.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 39(1): 77-83, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increasing number of chilblain-like lesions (ChLL) have been increasingly reported worldwide. To date, the causal link between ChLL and SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been unequivocally established. METHODS: In this case series, we present demographic, clinical, laboratory, and histopathological information regarding 27 young patients with a clinical diagnosis of ChLL who referred to the Dermatology Unit of Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy, from 1 April 2020 to 1 June 2020. RESULTS: The mean age was 14.2 years, and 21 patients (78%) experienced mild systemic symptoms a median of 28 days before the onset of cutaneous lesions. ChLL mostly involved the feet (20 patients - 74%). Among acral lesions, we identified three different clinical patterns: (i) chilblains in 20 patients (74%); (ii) fixed erythematous macules in 4 children (15%); (iii) erythrocyanosis in 3 female patients (11%). Blood examinations and viral serologies, including parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and coxsackievirus were normal in all. Three patients (11%) underwent nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 showing only 1 positive. Histopathological examinations of 7 skin biopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis of chilblains; vessel thrombi were observed only in 1 case. Our findings failed to demonstrate the direct presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in skin biopsies, both with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH). LIMITATIONS: Limited number of cases, unavailability of laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 in all patients, potential methodological weakness, and latency of skin biopsies in comparison to cutaneous lesions onset. CONCLUSIONS: These observations may support the hypothesis of an inflammatory pathogenesis rather than the presence of peripheral viral particles. Although, we could not exclude an early phase of viral endothelial damage followed by an IFN-I or complement-mediated inflammatory phase. Further observations on a large number of patients are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Adolescent , Chilblains/diagnosis , Child , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Laboratories , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Virol J ; 18(1): 168, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359000

ABSTRACT

A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1145-1149, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196426

ABSTRACT

Information about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HIV-infected individuals is scarce. In this prospective study, we included HIV (human immunodefeciency virus)-infected individuals (people living with HIV [PLWHIV]) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared them with PLWHIV negative for SARS-CoV-2. We compared 55 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with 69 asymptomatic PLWHIV negative for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or serology. There was no significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative patients for age distribution, gender, time with HIV infection, nadir CD4-cell counts, type and number of co-morbidities, current CD4 and CD8 counts and type of anti-HIV therapy. Positive patients presented with a median of three symptoms (interquartile range, 1-3). Most common symptoms were fever (76%), dyspnea (35%), anosmia (29%) non-productive cough (27%), fatigue 22%), and ageusia (20%). Ten patients (18%) were completely asymptomatic. Four (7.2%) subjects died of coronavirus disease 2019. Factors significantly (P < .05) associated with death included age and number of co-morbidities, while time from HIV infection and lower current CD4 counts were significant only in univariate analysis. HIV-infected individuals are not protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection or have a lower risk of severe disease. Indeed, those with low CD4 cell counts might have worse outcomes. Infection is asymptomatic in a large proportion of subjects and this is relevant for epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Age Distribution , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4612-4615, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159165

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic calls for rapid actions, now principally oriented to a world-wide vaccination campaign. In this study we verified if, in individuals with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, a single dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine would be immunologically equivalent to a full vaccine schedule in naïve individuals. Health care workers (184) with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were sampled soon before the second dose of vaccine and between 7 and 10 days after the second dose, the last sampling time was applied to SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, too. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured using Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay. The study was powered for non-inferiority. We used non parametric tests and Pearson correlation test to perform inferential analysis. After a single vaccine injection, the median titer of specific antibodies in individuals with previous coronavirus disease 2019 was 30.527 U/ml (interquartile range [IQR]: 19.992-39.288) and in subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic infection was 19.367.5 U/ml (IQR: 14.688-31.353) (p = .032). Both results were far above the median titer in naïve individuals after a full vaccination schedule: 1974.5 U/ml (IQR: 895-3455) (p < .0001). Adverse events after vaccine injection were more frequent after the second dose of vaccine (mean: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-1.14 vs. mean: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.63-2.19) (p < .0001) and in exposed compared to naïve (mean: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.28-1.98 vs. mean: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.87-2.82) (p = .015). In SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected individuals a single mRNA vaccine dose seems sufficient to reach immunity. Modifying current dosing schedules would speed-up vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 96, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might affect vulnerability to Covid-19. The aim of this study was to describe the role of gender on clinical features and 28-day mortality in Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study of Covid-19 patients hospitalized in Bergamo, Italy, during the first three weeks of the outbreak. Medical records, clinical, radiological and laboratory findings upon admission and treatment have been collected. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality since hospitalization. RESULTS: 431 consecutive adult patients were admitted. Female patients were 119 (27.6%) with a mean age of 67.0 ± 14.5 years (vs 67.8 ± 12.5 for males, p = 0.54). Previous history of myocardial infarction, vasculopathy and former smoking habits were more common for males. At the time of admission PaO2/FiO2 was similar between men and women (228 [IQR, 134-273] vs 238 mmHg [150-281], p = 0.28). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) assistance was needed in the first 24 h more frequently in male patients (25.7% vs 13.0%; p = 0.006). Overall 28-day mortality was 26.1% in women and 38.1% in men (p = 0.018). Gender did not result an independent predictor of death once the parameters related to disease severity at presentation were included in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.898). Accordingly, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in female and male patients requiring CPAP or non-invasive ventilation in the first 24 h did not find a significant difference (p = 0.687). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized women are less likely to die from Covid-19; however, once severe disease occurs, the risk of dying is similar to men. Further studies are needed to better investigate the role of gender in clinical course and outcome of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
11.
Panminerva Med ; 63(1): 51-61, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Findings from February 2020, indicate that the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 can be heterogeneous, probably due to the infectious dose and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 within the first weeks of the outbreak. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of overall 28-day mortality at the peak of the Italian outbreak. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all COVID-19 patients admitted to the main hospital of Bergamo, from February 23 to March 14, 2020. RESULTS: Five hundred and eight patients were hospitalized, predominantly male (72.4%), mean age of 66±15 years; 49.2% were older than 70 years. Most of patients presented with severe respiratory failure (median value [IQR] of PaO2/FiO2: 233 [149-281]). Mortality rate at 28 days resulted of 33.7% (N.=171). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 9.5% with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 13.6% with endotracheal intubation. 9.5% were admitted to Semi-Intensive Respiratory Care Unit, and 18.9% to Intensive Care Unit. Risk factors independently associated with 28-day mortality were advanced age (≥78 years: odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.91 [10.67-141.93], P<0.001; 70-77 years: 17.30 [5.40-55.38], P<0.001; 60-69 years: 3.20 [1.00-10.20], P=0.049), PaO2/FiO2<200 at presentation (3.50 [1.70-7.20], P=0.001), need for CPAP/NIV in the first 24 hours (8.38 [3.63-19.35], P<0.001), and blood urea value at admission (1.01 [1.00-1.02], P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: At the peak of the outbreak, with a probable high infectious dose and viral load, older age, the severity of respiratory failure and renal impairment at presentation, but not comorbidities, are predictors of 28-day mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Oncologist ; 26(4): 341-347, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986355

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Europe, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had its first epicenter in Italy. Despite a significant mortality rate, the severity of most cases of COVID-19 infection ranges from asymptomatic to mildly symptomatic, and silent infection affects a still-unknown proportion of the general population. No information is available on the prevalence and clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2 silent infection among patients with cancer receiving anticancer treatment during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 1, 2020, to the end of the same month, 560 consecutive patients with cancer, asymptomatic for COVID-19 and on anticancer treatment at Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bergamo, were evaluated and tested for SARS-CoV-2. We implemented a two-step diagnostics, including the rapid serological immunoassay for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig) G/IgM and the nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in case of seropositivity to identify SARS-CoV-2 silent carriers. RESULTS: In 560 patients, 172 (31%) resulted positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies, regardless of different type of cancer, stage, and treatment. The Ig-seropositive patients were then tested with RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs, and 38% proved to be SARS-CoV-2 silent carriers. At an early follow-up, in the 97 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive/RT-PCR-negative patients who continued their anticancer therapies, only one developed symptomatic COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSION: Among patients with cancer, the two-step diagnostics is feasible and effective for SARS-CoV-2 silent carriers detection and might support optimal cancer treatment strategies at both the individual and the population level. The early safety profile of the different anticancer therapies, in patients previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, supports the recommendation to continue the active treatment, at least in cases of RT-PCR-negative patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This is the first study evaluating the prevalence and clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2 silent infection in actively treated patients with cancer, during the epidemic peak in one of the worst areas of the COVID-19 pandemic. Lacking national and international recommendations for the detection of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, a pragmatic and effective two-step diagnostics was implemented to ascertain SARS-CoV-2 silent carriers. In this series, consisting of consecutive and unselected patients with cancer, the prevalence of both SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients and silent carriers is substantial (31% and 10%, respectively). The early safety profile of the different anticancer therapies, in patients previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, supports the recommendation to continue the active treatment, at least in case of RT-PCR-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
Glycobiology ; 31(4): 372-377, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917675

ABSTRACT

A large variation in the severity of disease symptoms is one of the key open questions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemics. The fact that only a small subset of people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 develops severe disease suggests that there have to be some predisposing factors, but biomarkers that reliably predict disease severity have not been found so far. Since overactivation of the immune system is implicated in a severe form of COVID-19 and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation is known to be involved in the regulation of different immune processes, we evaluated the association of interindividual variation in IgG N-glycome composition with the severity of COVID-19. The analysis of 166 severe and 167 mild cases from hospitals in Spain, Italy and Portugal revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of the IgG N-glycome. The most notable difference was the decrease in bisecting N-acetylglucosamine in severe patients from all three cohorts. IgG galactosylation was also lower in severe cases in all cohorts, but the difference in galactosylation was not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Glycosylation , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
14.
J Neurol ; 268(7): 2331-2338, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidences from either small series or spontaneous reporting are accumulating that SARS-CoV-2 involves the Nervous Systems. The aim of this study is to provide an extensive overview on the major neurological complications in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective, observational analysis on all COVID-19 patients admitted from February 23rd to April 30th, 2020 to ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy for whom a neurological consultation/neurophysiological assessment/neuroradiologic investigation was requested. Each identified neurologic complication was then classified into main neurologic categories. RESULTS: Of 1760 COVID-19 patients, 137 presented neurologic manifestations that manifested after COVID-19 symptoms in 98 pts and was the presenting symptom in 39. Neurological manifestations were classified as: (a) cerebrovascular disease [53 pts (38.7%)] including 37 ischemic and 11 haemorrhagic strokes, 4 transient ischemic attacks, 1 cerebral venous thrombosis; (b) peripheral nervous system diseases [31 (22.6%)] including 17 Guillain-Barrè syndromes; (c) altered mental status [49 (35.8%)] including one necrotizing encephalitis and 2 cases with RT-PCR detection of SARS-Cov-2 RNA in CSF; (d) miscellaneous disorders, among whom 2 patients with myelopathy associated with Ab anti-SARS-CoV-2 in CSF. Patients with peripheral nervous system involvement had more frequently severe ARDS compared to patients with cerebrovascular disease (87.1% vs 42%; difference = 45.1% 95% CI 42.0-48.2; χ2= 14.306; p < 0.0002) and with altered mental status (87.1% vs 55.6%; difference = 31.5% 95% CI 27.5-37.5%; χ2= 7.055; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that involvement of nervous system is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and offers clinicians useful information for prevention and prompt identification in order to set the adequate therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Nervous System Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705276

ABSTRACT

Our work concerns the actual problem of spread of SARS- CoV-2 outbreak which requires fast and correct as possible answer. In current scenario, the need of rapid answer put away the imperative of proper methodology. We focus on the serogical immunoassay for diagnosis of Covid-19 as an important weapon not only for diagnostic purpose, but also for epidemiologic one. The right equilibrium between high speed, low cost and accuracy is obtained with easy-to-use decentralized point-of-care test as the colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip assay which detects IgM and IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2. As our aim is to evaluate the efficacy of Covid-19 rapid tests and of serological assays in real-life settings, we designed a research protocol aimed to establish how to use correctly these diagnostics, taking into account the different possible clinical and epidemiological scenarios.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Primary Prevention/methods , Primary Prevention/organization & administration , Primary Prevention/standards
16.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670832

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is the characterization and genomic tracing by phylogenetic analyses of 59 new SARS-CoV-2 Italian isolates obtained from patients attending clinical centres in North and Central Italy until the end of April 2020. All but one of the newly-characterized genomes belonged to the lineage B.1, the most frequently identified in European countries, including Italy. Only a single sequence was found to belong to lineage B. A mean of 6 nucleotide substitutions per viral genome was observed, without significant differences between synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, indicating genetic drift as a major source for virus evolution. tMRCA estimation confirmed the probable origin of the epidemic between the end of January and the beginning of February with a rapid increase in the number of infections between the end of February and mid-March. Since early February, an effective reproduction number (Re) greater than 1 was estimated, which then increased reaching the peak of 2.3 in early March, confirming the circulation of the virus before the first COVID-19 cases were documented. Continuous use of state-of-the-art methods for molecular surveillance is warranted to trace virus circulation and evolution and inform effective prevention and containment of future SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Epidemiological Monitoring , Genome, Viral , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Typing , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Whole Genome Sequencing
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