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1.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850415

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus-19 pandemic, chest X-ray scoring system have been validated by Al-Smadi and Toussie in this group of patients and even RALE score, previously designed for ARDS, have been used to estimate correlation with mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of As-Smadi, Tuossie and RALE scores in predicting death in the same population of patients when associated to clinical data. In this retrospective clinical study, data of patients with COVID-19, admitted to our hospital from 1st October 2020 to 31st December 2020 were collected. CXR images of each patient were analyzed with the three different scores above mentioned. 144 patients (male 96 aged 68.5 years) were included in the study. 93 patients reported a least 1 comorbidity and 36 died. The association with increasing age, presence of comorbidities, and lower hemoglobin was significantly associated with risk of death for all the regression models. When considering the radiological score, a significant effect was found for the Al Smadi and RALE scores, while no evidence of association was found for the Toussie score. The fraction of new information is 16.7% for the Al Smadi score, 12.9% for the RALE and 5.1% for the Toussie score. The improvement in the prognostic usefulness with respect to the base model is particularly interesting for the Al Smadi score. The highest c-index was also obtained by the model with the Al Smadi score.

2.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 65, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 12-month from discharge. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study, patients hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only", "continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)" and "invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)") and followed up at 12 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6 min walking test, high resolution CT (HRCT) scan, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale were collected. RESULTS: Out of 287 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and followed up at 1 year, DLCO impairment, mainly of mild entity and improved with respect to the 6-month follow-up, was observed more frequently in the "oxygen only" and "IMV" group (53% and 49% of patients, respectively), compared to 29% in the "CPAP" group. Abnormalities at chest HRCT were found in 46%, 65% and 80% of cases in the "oxygen only", "CPAP" and "IMV" group, respectively. Non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities, in particular reticulations and ground-glass attenuation, were the main finding, while honeycombing was found only in 1% of cases. Older patients and those requiring IMV were at higher risk of developing radiological pulmonary sequelae. Dyspnea evaluated through mMRC scale was reported by 35% of patients with no differences between groups, compared to 29% at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: DLCO alteration and non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities are common after 1 year from hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, particularly in older patients requiring higher ventilatory support. Studies with longer follow-ups are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/virology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318409

ABSTRACT

Background: In clinical practice, the striking similarities observed at computed tomography (CT) between the diseases make it difficult to distinguish a COVID-19 pneumonia from a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to identify the main CT features that may help distinguishing SSc-ILD from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study.Findings: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes;fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO;reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score weas created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity).Interpretation: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination our score and the radiologic expertise. If an overlap of both diseases is suspected, the presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.Funding: No Funding were received for this study.Declaration of Interests: SC reports personal fees from NOVARTIS-SANOFI-LILLY-CELTHER-PFIZER-JANSSEN;MK reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from Chugai, grants and personal fees from Ono Pharmeceuticals, personal fees from Tanabe-Mitsubishi, personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Gilead, personal fees from Mochida;ST reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work;GS reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim;CB reports personal fees from Actelion, personal fees from Eli Lilly, grants from European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group, grants from New Horizon Fellowship, grants from Foundation for Research in Rheumatology (FOREUM), grants from Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sull'Artrite (FIRA);CV reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.;FL reports lectures fee from Roche and from Boehringer- Ingelheim;CPD reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boerhinger Ingelheim, grants from Servier, grants and personal fees from Inventiva, grants and personal fees from Arxx Therapeutics, personal fees from Corbus, personal fees from Sanofi, personal fees from Roche;FL reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Orion Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from MSD, personal fees from HIKMA, personal fees from Trudell International, grants and personal fees from Chiesi Farmaceutici, personal fees from Novartis Pharma;MH reports personal fees from Speaking fees from Actelion, Eli lilly and Pfizer;D K reports personal fees from Actelion, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhem, personal fees from CSL Behring, grants and personal fees from Horizon, grants from Pfizer, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from BMS, outside the submitted work;and Dr Khanna is the Chief Medical officer of Eicos Sciences Inc and has s ock options. All the mentioned authors declared previous feed outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This retrospective, observational, multicentric, international study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Florence Careggi hospital (protocol number 17104_oss).

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307124

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity as well as metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities are established, significant predictors of worse prognosis in overall COVID-19 population, but limited information are available on their specific roles in young adults (aged ≤ 50 years). The main objectives of the present Italian multi-center study were to describe clinical characteristics, and role of selected prognostic predictors, in particular obesity, in a large cohort of young hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods: Nine Pulmonology Units, across North and Centre of Italy, were involved in this retrospective study. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as radiological features were registered for all cases. Comorbidity were classified according to their known or potential association with COVID-19.Findings: A total of 263 subjects were included. The prevalence of obesity was 25.9%, mechanical ventilation (MV) was needed in 73 patients (27.7%), and 28 in-hospital deaths occurred (10.6%). Obesity and older age were the only significant predictors for MV in a full model adjusted for comorbidities and markers of severity. Pre-existing comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes and asthma, and increased D-dimer level were significantly associated with higher mortality risk, regardless of age, body mass index, and MV.Interpretation: Obesity in young adults is, per se, a strong, independent, predictor of a more complicated COVID-19, without, however, influencing in-hospital mortality. On the other hand, selected comorbidities, mainly hypertension, diabetes and asthma, significantly impact survival even in a young population, and prompt recognition of these conditions as well as a closer surveillance of this subgroup are highly recommended.Funding: none.Declaration of Interests: Prof. Bonifazi reports speaker fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Roche, outside the submitted work;Dr. Harari reports personal fees from Roche, grants and personal fees from Actelion and Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: Anonymized data of patients included in the study cohort were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. The study protocol complies to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and it was notified and approved by the coordinator ethics committee (n. 2020131) and by each local ethics committee and the need for patient’s informed consent was waived.

5.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(4): 1600-1609, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the main CT features that may help in distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to SSc from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers grouped into a radiologist group (RADs) and a non-radiologist group (nRADs). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGOs; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGOs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created that was positively associated with COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: CT diagnosis differentiating between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through a combination of the proposed score and radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest COVID-19 pneumonia, while the presence of fibrosis inside GGOs may indicate SSc-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136514

ABSTRACT

Obesity as well as metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities are established, significant predictors of worse prognosis in the overall COVID-19 population, but limited information is available on their roles in young and middle-aged adults (aged ≤ 50 years). The main objectives of the present Italian multi-center study were to describe clinical characteristics and role of selected prognostic predictors in a large cohort of young and middle-aged hospitalized patients. Nine pulmonology units, across north and center of Italy, were involved in this retrospective study. Comorbidities were classified according to their known or potential association with COVID-19. A total of 263 subjects were included. The prevalence of obesity was 25.9%, mechanical ventilation (MV) was needed in 27.7%, and 28 in-hospital deaths occurred (10.6%). Obesity and older age were the only independent, significant predictors for MV. Comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and increased D-dimer levels were significantly associated with higher mortality risk, regardless of age, body mass index, and MV. Obesity in young and middle-aged adults is a strong predictor of a more complicated COVID-19, without, however, evidence of a significant effect on in-hospital mortality. Selected comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes and asthma, significantly impact survival even in a younger population, suggesting the need for prompt recognition of these conditions.

8.
Emerg Radiol ; 28(3): 507-518, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107828

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, in order to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 12: 1759720X20953356, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality rate in patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be related to the presence of comorbidities like diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. On the contrary, few data exist on the impact of CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on patients with rheumatic disorders, namely in those having pulmonary involvement and treated with immunosuppressive agents. The present survey is aimed at knowing the impact of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Telephone interviews were carried out during the COVID-19 outbreak in patients with SSc followed in a Rheumatic Disease Unit in Italy. Patients were asked for confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, and modification of their therapy. RESULTS: A total number of 526 patients with SSc were contacted and interviewed. Of them, 270 and 256 had limited cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous SSc, respectively. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) was present in 45% of patients and most of them (68.2%) were treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Only two patients were hospitalized for COVID-19-related pneumonia, and one of them died despite invasive ventilator support. An additional 11 patients reported flu-like symptoms compatible with a mild form of COVID-19. Nobody modified the therapy during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: Despite the large prevalence of ILD and immunosuppressive therapies, which can be considered risk factors for the occurrence and severity of incidental viral infections, the impact of COVID-19, in terms of mortality rate and morbidity, does not appear particularly severe in this large cohort of patients with SSc. Possible mechanisms influencing this figure are discussed.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

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