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1.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731957

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody therapies for COVID-19 have been frequently used in adults, whereas there are little data regarding the safety or efficacy of monoclonal antibody treatments in pediatric patients affected by COVID-19. We report our experience in the administration of mAb as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children aged from 24 days to 18 years old.

2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 33, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 causes lesions, in addition to lung, in endocrine organs such as the pancreas through ACE2 receptor. Recently the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 exposition and the incidence or evolution of clinical autoimmune diabetes has attracted the attention of diabetologists. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the analysis of the clinical history of a child diagnosed for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) at the time a paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infection occurred, followed by well-controlled metabolic status. As opposite to previous findings SARS-CoV2 did not cause ketosis and ketoacidosis. Polydipsia was reported a few months and weight loss 4 weeks before SARS- CoV-2 infection suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 could not be the trigger of Type 1 diabetes in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 in this patient was an unexpected event in the course of disease. We advance the hypothesis that the SARS-CoV-2 infection, even if paucisymptomatic could have acted in the present case report as a hypothetical downstream precipitating factor; whilst the inciting triggering event of the autoimmune disease, as confirmed by the presence of circulating autoantibodies, could have occurred even before, as generally assumed for this category of disorders. The precipitating mechanism could have been the acute interaction between virus and the ACE receptor on the beta cells, at the time that hyperglycemia and glycosuria were ascertained, and HbA1c levels confirmed a metabolic dysregulation over the previous 3 months in absence of ketoacidosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Autoantibodies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323262

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) involvement has been occasionally reported in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or among those with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We aimed to investigate the clinical, radiological and histopathological GI characteristics in order to identify factors associated with severe outcome.Methods: In this multicenter retrospective nationwide cohort study, symptomatic children with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C were enrolled. Children who received a diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis, intussusception, pancreatitis, diffuse adeno-mesenteritis or abdominal fluid collections requiring surgical consultation and temporally correlated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were classified as having a severe GI involvement. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals]) between potential explanatory factors and severe outcome.Findings: 685 children were enrolled between February 2020 and January 2021. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospital admission (OR 2·64 [1·89–3·69]) and of intensive care support (OR 3·90 [1·98–7·68]).Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed a severe GI involvement featuring atypical presentations including disseminated adeno-mesenteritis (39·6%), appendicitis (33·5%), abdominal fluid collections (21·3%), pancreatitis (6·9%) or ileal intussusception (4·6%). Twenty-seven (42%) of these children underwent surgery, and remarkably only half of clinically suspected appendicitis were histologically confirmed. Children aged 5-10 years (OR 8·33 [2·62–26·5]) or > 10 years of age (OR 6·37 [2·12-19·1]) had a higher chance of severe outcome, compared to preschool-age children. Severe GI outcomes were more frequent in patients with abdominal pain (aOR 34·5 [10·1–118]), lymphopenia (aOR 8·93 [3·03-26·3]) or MIS-C (aOR 6·28 [1·92–20·5]). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adeno-mesenteritis (aOR 3·13 [1·08–9·12]) and abdominal fluid collections (aOR 3·22 [1·03-10]).Interpretation: About 10% of symptomatic children with COVID-19 may have severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. Early identification of at-risk patients can improve the management of serious complications.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the coordinating center (protocol number 0031296) as well as by independent ethics committees and/or institutional review boards of any single enrolling center.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318110

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that are common in humans and many animal species. Animal coronaviruses rarely infect humans with the exceptions of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus (SARS-CoV), and now SARS-CoV-2, which is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies suggested that genetic variants in the ACE2 gene may influence the host susceptibility or resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection according to the functional role of ACE2 in human pathophysiology. However, many of these studies have been conducted in silico based on epidemiological and population data. We therefore investigated the occurrence of ACE2 variants in a cohort of 131 Italian unrelated individuals clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 and in an Italian control population, to evaluate a possible allelic association with COVID-19, by direct DNA analysis. Methods: : As a pilot study, we analyzed, by whole-exome sequencing, genetic variants of ACE2 gene in 131 DNA samples of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Tor Vergata University Hospital and at Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome. We used a large control group consisting of 1,000 individuals (500 males and 500 females). Results: : We identified three different germline variants: one intronic c.439+4G>A and two missense c.1888G>C p.(Asp630His) and c.2158A>G p.(Asn720Asp) in a total of 131 patients with a similar frequency in male and female. Thus far, only the c.1888G>C p.(Asp630His) variant shows a statistically different frequency compared to the ethnically matched populations. Therefore, further studies are needed in larger cohorts, since it was found only in one heterozygous COVID-19 patient. Conclusions: : Our results suggest that there is no strong evidence, in our cohort, of consistent association of ACE2 variants with COVID-19 severity. We might speculate that rare susceptibility/resistant alleles could be located in the non-coding regions of the ACE2 gene, known to play a role in regulation of the gene activity.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317622

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns in combination with clinical-laboratory profiles of children hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in relation to temporal trend of the Italian epidemic. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a pediatric tertiary referral hospital from 15th March 2020 to 15th March 2021. We compared the characteristics of two periods of the pandemic outbreak, the first one in spring and summer (15th March-30th September 2020) and the second one in autumn and winter (1st October 2020-15th March 2021). Results: 28 patients (53.85%) were in the first period, 24 patients (46.15%) were in the second period. The disease severity score was significantly higher in the second period (p=0.02). We observed that the occurrence of the irregular pleural line was seen more frequently in the second period (87.5% vs 60.71%;p=0.03). The B-lines were significantly more frequent in children in the second period (87.5% vs 60%;p=0.03). The several but not-coalescent B-lines were significantly more frequent in the second period (80% vs 41.7%;p=0.05). The LUS score correlated significantly with the disease severity score with a strong relationship (r=0.51, p=0.002). The second phase of the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak had a higher disease severity score than the first phase with a moderate correlation (r= 0.42;p=0.01). Conclusion: The LUS plays an important role in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in children affected by COVID-19 during different periods of the pandemic in combination with clinical-laboratory findings.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs, thus it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study seeks to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic children (SY), stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swabs samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (Diasorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T-cells, using a labelled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS had lower viral load at diagnosis (p=0.004) and faster virus clearance (p=0.0002) compared to SY. Anti-SARS CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+T-cells. Whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was associated to symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regards to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS to contribute towards herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308827

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses and with the school reopening, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children in order to define possible immunization strategies and reconsider pandemic control measures. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab) and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 42 COVID-19-infected children 7 days after symptoms onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance, and lower viral load associated to a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4-CD40L+ T-cells and Spike specific B-cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, with PRNT+ patients showing higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work shed lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children which may drive future vaccination trials endpoints and quarantine measures policies.Funding: This work was made possible by support from Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital ricerca corrente 2020 to NC and ricerca corrente 2019 to PP, by PENTA and by Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo, Progetti di Ricerca Covid-19 (ADR participant).Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Local ethical committee approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all participants or legal guardians.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308616

ABSTRACT

Background: In early January 2020, a novel type of Coronavirus was identified in a patient affected by pneumonia of unknown origin. The virus will be named SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19 a month later by the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy.Italy is one of the first countries in the world affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with 1.2% of all patients represented by children. Although the infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties.To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive rhino-pharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge.Materials and MethodsWe monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, 19 children aged between 8 months and 15 years, hospitalized in the “Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù” COVID Center with positive rhino-pharyngeal swab at discharge. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative rhino-pharyngeal swabs.ResultsDuring the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized, 1 patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin a D-dimers.We didn’t miss any patient during the follow up.ConclusionWe demonstrated that daily telephonic follow up is safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive swab, it allows to avoid long term hospitalization and to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complication such as MIS-C.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512225

ABSTRACT

Pericarditis with pericardial effusion in SARS CoV-2 infection is a well-known entity in adults. In children and adolescents, only a few cases have been reported. Here, we present here a case of a 15-year-old girl affected by Sotos syndrome with pre-tamponed pericardial effusion occurred during SARS-CoV-2 infection. A possible relation between SARS-CoV-2 pericarditis and genetic syndromes, as a major risk factor for the development of severe inflammation, has been speculated. We emphasize the importance of active surveillance by echocardiograms when SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in combination with a genetic condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiac Tamponade/physiopathology , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Adolescent , Cardiac Tamponade/complications , Cardiac Tamponade/virology , Echocardiography/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pericarditis/complications , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sotos Syndrome/complications , Sotos Syndrome/virology
12.
Children (Basel) ; 8(8)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367795

ABSTRACT

Since the spread of COVID-19, pediatric patients were initially considered less affected by SARS-COV-2, but current literature reported subsets of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). This study aims to describe the cardiac manifestation of SARS-COV-2 infection in a large cohort of children admitted to two Italian pediatric referral centers. Between March 2020 and March 2021, we performed a cardiac evaluation in 294 children (mean age 9 ± 5.9 years, male 60%) with active or previous SARS-COV-2 infection. Twenty-six showed ECG abnormalities: 63 repolarization anomalies, 13 Long QTc, five premature ventricular beats, two non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and one atrial fibrillation. In total, 146 patients underwent cardiac biomarkers: NT-proBNP was elevated in 57, troponin in 34. An echocardiogram was performed in 98, showing 54 cardiac anomalies: 27 left-ventricular dysfunction, 42 pericarditis, 16 coronaritis. MIS-C was documented in 46 patients (mean age 9 ± 4.8 years, male 61%) with cardiac manifestations in 97.8%: 27 ventricular dysfunctions, 32 pericarditis, 15 coronaritis, 3 arrhythmias. All patients recovered, and during follow-up, no cardiac anomalies were recorded. Our experience showed that cardiac involvement is not rare in children with SARS-COV-2, and occurred in almost all patients with MIS-C. However, patients' recovery is satisfactory and no additional events were reported during FU.

13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 119, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties. To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swab after discharge. The aim of the study is to describe our experience in a telephonic follow up which can allow early and safe discharge from hospital while keeping the patients under close clinical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five children were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection at Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital COVID Center from 16th March to 3rd July. We monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, the patients discharged still presenting a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: During the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized. One patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin and D-dimers. We also monitored the average time of viral shedding, resulting in a median duration of 28 days. CONCLUSION: Our experience describes the daily telephonic follow up as safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive PCR. As a matter of fact it could avoid long term hospitalization and allow to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complications such as MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Telephone , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1833-1842, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs; thus, it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study sought to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic (SY) children, stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swab samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (DiaSorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T cells, using a labeled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS patients had lower viral load at diagnosis (p = .004) and faster virus clearance (p = .0002) compared with SY patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY patients showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+ T cells, whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was found to be associated with symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regard to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS patients to contribute toward herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS patients suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
15.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108852, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135278

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children to define immune correlates of protection upon immunization or infection. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 66 COVID-19-infected children at 7 (±2) days after symptom onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance and lower viral load associated with a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells and Spike-specific B cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and PRNT+ patients show higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work sheds lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children, which may drive future vaccination trial endpoints and quarantine measures policies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Load/immunology
17.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 576912, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983735

ABSTRACT

Background: In severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) critically ill adults, hyperinflammation plays a key role in disease progression. The clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children are much less severe compared with adult patients and usually associated with a good prognosis. However, hyperinflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected pediatric patients has been described as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 or as Kawasaki-like disease but is still little known, and optimal management has to be defined. The World Health Organization (WHO) on the 15th of May 2020 has developed a preliminary case definition for multisystem inflammatory disorder in children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and stated for an urgent need to collect data on this condition. Here, we report two adolescent patients affected by COVID-19 presenting with multisystem inflammatory disorder, 3-4 weeks after the first symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, treated with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra and glucocorticoids with good clinical response. Cases: We report two patients chronically ill appearing, with high fever, severe gastrointestinal involvement, and increased biomarkers of inflammation onset 3-4 weeks after paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. They had no lung involvement, but abdominal ultrasound and CT scan showed thickening of the bowel wall. SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive on ileum biopsy in both patients, whereas it was negative on other common sampled sites. They have been admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and have been treated with a combination of anakinra 6-8 mg/kg/day i.v. and a standard dose of methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg/day in addition to lopinavir/ritonavir 400 mg q12h and low molecular weight heparin 100 UI/kg q12h with good clinical response.

18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 180, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lately, one of the major clinical and public health issues has been represented by Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy and the risk of transmission of the infection from mother to child. Debate on perinatal management and postnatal care is still ongoing, principally questioning the option of the joint management of mother and child after birth and the safety of breastfeeding. According to the available reports, neonatal COVID-19 appears to have a horizontal transmission and seems to be paucisymptomatic or asymptomatic, compared to older age groups. The aim of this work is to describe a cluster of neonatal COVID-19 and discuss our experience, with reference to current evidence on postnatal care and perinatal management. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case series of five mother-child dyads, who attended the Labor and Delivery Unit of a first-level hospital in Italy, in March 2020. Descriptive statistics for continuous variables consisted of number of observations, mean and the range of the minimum and maximum values. RESULTS: Five women and four neonates tested positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In one case, the mother-child dyad was separated and the neonate remained negative on two consecutive tests. Two positive neonates developed symptoms, with a predominant involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. Blood tests were unremarkable, except for a single patient who developed mild neutropenia. No complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: We agree that the decision on whether or not to separate a positive/suspected mother from her child should be made on an individual basis, taking into account the parent's will, clinical condition, hospital logistics and the local epidemiological situation. In conformity with literature, in our study, affected neonates were asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. Despite these reassuring findings, a few cases of severe presentation in the neonatal population have been reported. Therefore, we agree on encouraging clinicians to monitor the neonates with a suspected or confirmed infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Mothers , Postnatal Care , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
HLA ; 96(5): 610-614, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767643

ABSTRACT

With the aim to individuate alleles that may reflect a higher susceptibility to the disease, in the present study we analyzed the HLA allele frequency distribution in a group of 99 Italian patients affected by a severe or extremely severe form of COVID-19. After the application of Bonferroni's correction for multiple tests, a significant association was found for HLA-DRB1*15:01, -DQB1*06:02 and -B*27:07, after comparing the results to a reference group of 1017 Italian individuals, previously typed in our laboratory. The increased frequencies observed may contribute to identify potential markers of susceptibility to the disease, although controversial results on the role of single HLA alleles in COVID-19 patients have been recently reported.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Frequency , HLA Antigens/classification , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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